Vaccination is the administration of antigenic material (a vaccine) to stimulate an individual's immune system to develop adaptive immunity to a pathogen. Vaccines can prevent or ameliorate morbidity from infection. When a sufficiently large percentage of a population has been vaccinated, this results in herd immunity. The effectiveness of vaccination has been widely studied and verified; for example, the influenza vaccine, the HPV vaccine, and the chicken pox vaccine. Vaccination is the most effective method of preventing infectious diseases; widespread immunity due to vaccination is largely responsible for the worldwide eradication of smallpox and the restriction of diseases such as polio, measles, and tetanus from much of the world. The World Health Organization (WHO) reports that licensed vaccines are currently available to prevent or contribute to the prevention and control of twenty-five preventable infections.
The active agent of a vaccine may be intact but inactivated (non-infective) or attenuated (with reduced infectivity) forms of the causative pathogens, or purified components of the pathogen that have been found to be highly immunogenic (e.g., outer coat proteins of a virus). Toxoids are produced for immunization against toxin-based diseases, such as the modification of tetanospasmin toxin of tetanus to remove its toxic effect but retain its immunogenic effect.
Smallpox was most likely the first disease people tried to prevent by inoculating themselves and was the first disease for which a vaccine was produced. The smallpox vaccine was invented in 1796 by the British physician Edward Jenner and although at least six people had used the same principles years earlier he was the first to publish evidence that it was effective and to provide advice on its production. Louis Pasteur furthered the concept through his work in microbiology. The immunization was called vaccination because it was derived from a virus affecting cows (Latin: vacca 'cow'). Smallpox was a contagious and deadly disease, causing the deaths of 20–60% of infected adults and over 80% of infected children. When smallpox was finally eradicated in 1979, it had already killed an estimated 300–500 million people in the 20th century.
In common speech, vaccination and immunization have a similar meaning. This distinguishes it from inoculation, which uses unweakened live pathogens, although in common usage either can refer to an immunization. Vaccination efforts have been met with some controversy on scientific, ethical, political, medical safety, and religious grounds. In rare cases, vaccinations can injure people and, in the United States, they may receive compensation for those injuries under the National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program. Early success and compulsion brought widespread acceptance, and mass vaccination campaigns have greatly reduced the incidence of many diseases in numerous geographic regions.
Largent, Mark A. (2012). Vaccine: The Debate in Modern America. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN978-1-4214-0607-7.
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2. Abdulbaki Curves Out Of Metal Water Reviewed by Omar Muaz
Book Authored: When Flake Sails
Book: Silence Is The Beginning Of Hell
Author: Abdulbaki Ahmad
We combat our nerves by writing dust-dispersing poetries, be that as it may, Abdulbaki ruefully combats his fearlessness with tales of stand-in-awe. Silence Is The Beginning Of Hell is a collection of poems that put to paper massive amounts of Northern frith; how North becomes a bloodstream; and how BH insurrection fueled endless smoke in Maiduguri. The autho
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1. Andhra Pradesh PSC
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2. Arunachal Pradesh PSC
Previous year Question Papers - http://www.appsc.gov.in/PreviousYearQuestionPaper.htm
Model Question Papers and Answers Boo
4. What is the difference between NPR and Population Census? What is the difference between NPR and Population Census?
The recent news about the Cabinet ministry’s fund approval for NPR Census has created confusion among people about these terms. Often used interchangeably, both the terms have completely different meanings. Let’s understand in detail through this article.
After the cabinet today approved an amount of Rs. 8700 crores for population census an Rs. 3900 crore for NPR (National Population Register), a lot o
5. General Knowledge Questions - 1 General Knowledge Questions
1. Blood does not coagulate so long it remains in the circulatory system because of-
A. Pressure of heparin in blood.
B. Pressure of blood.
C. Presence of iron pigments in blood.
D. Constant heart beat.
2. Indian Constitution came into force from-
A. 26th January, 1949
B. 26th November, 1949
C. 26th January, 1950
D. 26th November, 1950
6. About Right to Information Act 2005 About Right to Information Act 2005
Bringing Information to the Citizens
Right to Information Act 2005 mandates timely response to citizen requests for government information. It is an initiative taken by Department of Personnel and Training, Ministry of Personnel, Public Grievances and Pensions to provide a– RTI Portal Gateway to the citizens for quick search of information on the details of first Appellate Authorities,PIOs etc. amongst others, besides access
7. What is National Population Register (NPR) What is National Population Register (NPR)
The National Population Register (NPR) is a list of all the people residing in India and includes both the citizens and non-citizens as well. This definition is based on the statement by the Minister of State for Home Affairs Kiren Rijiju as a response in the Rajya Sabha that was released on 26 November 2014 by the Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India. It stated that "the NPR is the first step towards creation of National
8. Vidyapati (1352–1448), Vidyapati (1352–1448), also known by the sobriquet Maithil Kavi Kokil (the poet cuckoo of Maithili), was a Maithili and Sanskrit poet, writer and polyglot.
Vidyapati's influence was not just restricted to Maithili and Sanskrit literature but also extended to other Eastern literary traditions.The language at the time of Vidyapati, the prakrit-derived late abahatta, had just begun to transition into early versions of the Eastern languages such as Maithili, Bhojpuri etc.
9. General Knowledge Questions - 6 General Knowledge Questions - 6
1. The name of the Indian cricketer who taken ten wickets in one innings of a test cricket match(for men)
A. B.S. Bedi
C. Kapil Dev
D. Anil Kumbley
2. Ecology is the study of interrelations among-
A. Soil and water
B. Man and Environment
C. Organisms and environment
D. Members of a family
3. The world famous athlete Usain Bolt is fro
11. NISHTHA | National Portal of India
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The Department of School Education and Literacy has launched a National Mission to improve learning outcomes at the elementary level through an Integra
12. What is Vedic Mathematics
Vedic Mathematics is a collection of Techniques/Sutras to solve mathematical arithmetics in easy and faster way. It consists of 16 Sutras (Formulae) and 13 sub-sutras (Sub Formulae) which can be used for problems involved in arithmetic, algebra, geometry, calculus, conics.
Vedic Mathematics is a system of mathematics which was
13. Does Complex Numbers / Imaginary number i exists?? Does Complex Numbers / Imaginary number i exists??
People studying Higher Mathematics are often confused with the existence of Complex Numbers and its Imaginary number “i”.
What are Complex Numbers:
Complex Numbers are numbers whose 1st part is Real while 2nd part is Imaginary and is expressed as a+bi
a –> Real Part
bi –> Imaginary Part and
14. Procedure to Download the CA Final Question Papers with Suggested Answers If you want the Past attempt CA final question papers with suggested answers then, you can download it in a few simple steps. The procedure to download is available in this article. Detailed importance is also present in this article. Further, the exam pattern of the CA final is available. From this attempt (November 2019), ICAI has made some changes which are also available in this article.
15. Top 10 Indian Mathematicians and their Contributions It is no doubt that the world today is greatly indebted to the contributions made by Indian mathematicians. One of the most important contribution made by them was the introduction of decimal system as well as the invention of zero. Here are some the famous Indian mathematicians dating back from Indus Valley civilization and Vedas to Modern times.
16. Squares in Vedic Mathematics | Shortcut method for Square any number Tirthaji Maharaj has mentioned tricks to Square Numbers in Vedic Mathematics in Specific and General Methods. Specific Multiplication Methods can be applied when numbers satisfy certain conditions like number ending with 5 or number closer to power of 10, etc. While General Multiplication Methods can be applied to any type of number.
Depending on Specific and General Techniques, Squares in Vedic Mat
17. Computer – Some Important Abbreviations Computer – Some Important Abbreviations
Al – Artificial intelligence
ALGOL – Algorithmic Language
ARP – Address resolution Protocol
ASCII – American Standard Code for Information Interchange
BINAC – Binary Automatic Computer
BCC – Blind Carbon Copy
Bin – Binary
BASIC – Beginner’
18. Vaccines and Immunization | Facts and Information Vaccination is the administration of antigenic material (a vaccine) to stimulate an individual's immune system to develop adaptive immunity to a pathogen. Vaccines can prevent or ameliorate morbidity from infection. When a sufficiently large percentage of a population has been vaccinated, this results in herd immunity. The effectiveness of vaccination has been widely studied and verified; for example, the influenza vaccine, the HPV vaccine, and the chicken pox vaccine. Vaccination is the most eff
19. Abbreviations Related to Marketing Aptitude: Abbreviations Related to Marketing Aptitude:HNI – High Networth Individual.EOQ – Economic Order quality.FDR – Fixed Deposit Receipts.CNP – Cardholder Not Present.PIN – Personal Identification Number.SEO – Search Engine Optimization.CRM – Customer Relationship Management.BPO – Business Process Outsourcing.VAT – Value Added Tax.IDRA – Industries Development and Regu
20. National Pollution Control Day The National Pollution Control Day is celebrated every year on 2nd of December in India in order to give the honor and memorialize the thousands of human beings who had lost their existence because of the Bhopal gas calamity. Bhopal gas tragedy was happened in the night of 2nd and 3rd December in the year 1984 because of the unintentional discharge of the poisonous chemical known as Methyl Isocyanate (also called MIC) as well as some other chemicals released from the Union Carbide Chemical Plant position
21. MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS ON COMPUTER AWARNESS MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS ON COMPUTER AWARNESS
Which of the following is a storage device that uses rigid, permanently installed magnetic disks to store data/information
A set of instruction is called
22. Education in Bihar Education in Bihar
The Ancient Period
The appreciation of the importance of education and educational practices in Bihar
date back to the period of Gautama Buddha and Mahavir in the 5th century BC. During that period, the Buddhist and Jainist education started in parallel with the traditional Vedic education. The Buddhist education was based on the Ashtangic (eight-fold) Path, and its distinguishing features were: the introduction of
23. Right to Information Right to Information is an Act of the Parliament of India to be responsible for setting out the practical rule of the right to information for citizens and substitutes the past Freedom of information Act, 2002. If you are familiar with the RTI concepts, wiling to change the career into RTI field, then we in Wisdomjobs have provided you with all kinds of interview question and answers that you are going to get in the RTI. You can apply to the government jobs if you are good at RTI. If you are good at RTI
24. Statue of Unity: The Tallest Statue in the World There are many more feathers that can be added to the cap when it comes to the Statue of Unity- scheduled to be inaugurated on 31st of October. Standing at a mouth-gaping height of 182 meters, this statue of Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel is a good 54 meters taller than the Spring Temple Buddha (China). The latter is now the second largest statue in the world.
While the statue is one of PM Modi’s treasured projects, it hasn’t always escaped controversies. Nonetheless, it is the talk of th
25. Tips For Students: How to Take Good Notes for Studying Taking good notes throughout the semester may mean the difference between simple study sessions or decoding sessions later on. Your time is too valuable for you to just sit in class, day after day, only going through the motions of taking notes.
Only writing down what’s on the board won’t cut it. Scribbling incoherently won’t help you either. Try these tips for taking neat class notes that will be of use to you later on for studying and review.
Stay focused in class
26 CIMAP Scientist Technical Officer Vacancy Recruitment 2020#Jobs13 Days Remaining for Apply CIMAP Scientist Technical Officer Vacancy Recruitment 2020
CSIR-Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants (CSIR-CIMAP), invites online applications in the prescribed format from Indian citizens for the recruitment of Government Job vacancy posts of Scientists and Technical Officer from enthusiastic young and dynamic Indian Nationals involved in Product Development/Technology Innovation/Applied Technology/Translation Research having excellent academic record/proven ...
29 Manager Job Vacancy Recruitment in NPS Trust 2021 #Jobs6 Days Remaining for Apply National Pension System Trust (NPS Trust) invites online applications in the prescribed format from eligible Indian citizens for recruitment to fill up the following Sarkari Naukri vacancy posts of Officer Grade B (Manager) and Officer Grade A (Assistant Manager) across different streams on direct recruitment basis. (Advertisement No. 2/2020-21)
NPS Trust Manager Jobs Recruitment 2021 Vacancies
30 Recruitment of Staff Vacancy in NPCIL GHAVP Unit 2021#Jobs2 Days Remaining for Apply Gorakhpur Haryana Anu Vidyut Pariyojana (GHAVP) under Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited (NPCIL) is planning for recruitment of the following Government Jobs of Staff through Online application in the prescribed format in NPCIL GHAVP at district Fatehabad (Haryana). (Advertisement No: NPCIL/GHAVP/HR/RECTT/2021/01)
NPCIL Haryana GHAVP Unit Staff Vacancy Recruitment 2021
31 Officer Engineer Vacancy Recruitment by Meghalaya Advt. No. 2020-21/70#Jobs10 Days Remaining for Apply On behalf of various Government Departments of Meghalaya Government, Meghalaya Public Service Commission (PSC) invites online applications in the prescribed form from eligible candidates for direct recruitment of following Sarkari Naukri Vacancy of Officers/Engineer etc. in various Departments/Organisation of Meghalaya Government. (Advt. No. MPSC/Advt-54/1/2020-21/70)
Meghalaya PSC Officer Engineer Vacancy recruitment 2020-21
32 Technical & Support Staff Vacancy Recruitment in CDRI Lucknow#Uttar Pradesh13 Days Remaining for Apply Online applications in the prescribed format are invited from technically qualified persons for the Sarkari Naukri Vacancy of Technical & Support Staff as Technical Officer, Technical Assistant, and Technician at various levels in CSIR - Central Drug Research Institute (CDRI), Lucknow in the areas of Life Sciences, Chemical Sciences, Pre-clinical Sciences and Scientific & Technical support divisions of CSIR-CDRI. (Advt. No. 11/2020) SarkariNaukriBlog dot com.
CDRI Technical and Support Sta ...
33 Police Constable Vacancy Recruitment by Haryana SSC Advt. No. 4/2020#Haryana18 Days Remaining for Apply Haryana Staff Selection Commission (HSSC/HRYSSC) invites online applications in the prescribed form from eligible candidates for direct recruitment of following Sarkari Naukri Vacancy of Constables (Male/Female) in Group-C in Haryana Police. (Advt. No. 4/2020)
Haryana SSC Police Constable Recruitment Advt. No. 4/2020
Haryana SSC Police Constable Recruitment 2021 Vacancies
Male Constable (General Duty): 5500 vacancies
34 IBPS IT Jobs Vacancy Recruitment 2021 #Bank16 Days Remaining for Apply Institute of Banking Personnel Selection (IBPS), an autonomous body, has been authorised by the IBA, invites online applications in the prescribed format from eligible candidates for selection of personnel to the following Information Technology (IT) Sarkari Naukri Vacancy posts in IBPS.
IBPS IT Jobs Recruitment 2021 Vacancies
Analyst Programmer - Windows: 01 vacancies
Analyst Programmer - Frontend: 02 vacancies
35 Vidhi Rachanakar Vacancy Recruitment by RPSC 2021#Rajasthan24 Days Remaining for Apply Rajasthan Public Service Commission (RPSC) invites Online application in the prescribed format for the recruitment for the following Sarkari Naukri vacancy of Vidhi Rachanakar (विधि रचनाकार) for Rajasthan Law and Legal Affairs Department of Rajasthan Government (Advt. No. 07/EP-I/2020-21).
Rajasthan PSC recruitment examination requires hard work, dedication, and extensive study. The details of RPSC Vidhi Rachanakar Vacancy Recruitment 2021 are given below. ...
36 Recruitment of Regular Job Vacancies in IRCON International 2021#Jobs6 Days Remaining for Apply IRCON International Limited, A Public Sector Undertaking under the Ministry of Railways invites online applications on prescribed format for the recruitment for the following regular Government Job vacancy posts in the disciplines of Civil, Electrical, Finance and Legal disciplines at Ircon's various projects situated in various states across India. (Advertisement No. 07/2020).
Ircon International regular job vacancy 2021
IRCON Regular Job Recruitment 2021 Vacancie ...
37 MMMOCL Permanent Job Vacancy Recruitment 2021#Jobs16 Days Remaining for Apply Maha Mumbai Metro (M3) Operation Corporation Ltd. (MMMOCL) intends to appoint qualified and experienced Engineering professionals for the following 127 Government Job Vacancy posts of Permanent Job Vacancy posts on prescribed format in Maha Mumbai Metro Operation Corporation Limited.
MMMOCL Permanent Job Recruitment 2021 Vacancies
Assistant Manager (P/Way): 01 vacancies
Station Manager: 03 vacancies
38 Recruitment of Faculty & non-Teaching Vacancy in IIT Tirupati 2021#Jobs6 Days Remaining for Apply Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Tirupati (Andhra Pradesh) invites online applications in the prescribed format from candidates with an established record of independent high-quality research and commitment to teaching for regular Faculty Sarkari Naukri Vacancy positions of Professor, Associate Professors, and Assistant Professor and regular non-teaching staff vacancies. (Advertisement No. IITT/FAC – RMT-01/2020 & IITTP/Staff RMT-01/2020)
Government Jobs Vacancy Recruitment IIT Tirup ...
39 Direct Recruitment Job Vacancy in National Book Trust 2021#Jobs22 Days Remaining for Apply The National Book Trust (NBT) is an apex professional body established by the Government of India, invites application in the prescribed format from eligible candidates for recruitment and filling up the following Sarkari Naukri Vacancy posts on direct recruitment basis for its head office at New Delhi and regional offices at Bengaluru, Mumbai and Kolkata (Advertisement No.Estt./43/2020).
National Book Trust Regular Job Recruitment 2021 Vacancies
40 Apex Bank Officer Grade Vacancy Recruitment 2021#Bank8 Days Remaining for Apply M.P. Rajya Sahakari Bank Maryadit (Apex bank - MPRSB) (M.P. State Cooperative Bank Limited) having headquartered at Bhopal (Madhya Pradesh) invites Online application in the prescribed format from Indian citizens for recruitment and appointment to the following 29 Posts of Officers Grade (Specialists) for the year 2021 in Apex Bank.
Apex Bank Specialist Officer Grade Recruitment 2021 Vacancies
Apex Bank Officer Grade : 29 vacancies in SM-I/SM-II/MM-I/MM-II ...
41 Recruitment for Law Clerks Trainee in Uttarakhand High Court 2021#Uttarakhand8 Days Remaining for Apply Applications in the prescribed format are invited from all eligible candidates for the post of ‘Law Clerks (Trainee)’ purely on contractual basis for a fixed tenure of one year (may be extended) in the establishment of High Court of Uttarakhand at Nainital. (Advertisement No. 01/Law Clerks (Trainee)/2021)
Uttarakhand High Court Law Clerks Trainee Recruitment 2021
Law Clerks Trainee : 10 vacancies, Pay : ₹35000/- per month consolidated, Qualification ...
42 Apex Bank Cadre Officer Vacancy Recruitment 2021#Bank15 Days Remaining for Apply M.P. Rajya Sahakari Bank Maryadit (Apex bank - MPRSB) (Madhya Pradesh State Cooperative Bank Limited) having headquartered at Bhopal (Madhya Pradesh) invites Online application in the prescribed format from Indian citizens for recruitment and appointment to the following 75 Sarkari Naukri Vacancy Posts of Cadre Officers for the year 2021 in Apex Bank.
Apex Bank Cadre Officer Recruitment 2021 Vacancies
Chief Executive Officer (General Manager) Class-I : 12 ...
44 Recruitment for Job Vacancy in National Education Society for Tribal Students 2021#Jobs12 Days Remaining for Apply National Education Society for Tribal Students (NESTS), an autonomous organisation under the Ministry of Tribal Affairs (MoTA), Government of India (GoI) invites online applications in the prescribed format from all eligible candidates for recruitment of various Government Job vacancies in Group-B and Group-C Jobs Categories on regular basis in NESTS for which the recruitment examination will be conducted through Computer Based Test/Examination. (Advertisement No. 01)
NESTS Jobs Recruitmen ...
45 Recruitment of Assistant Professor Faculty Vacancy in NIT Jalandhar 2021#Punjab18 Days Remaining for Apply Dr. B. R. Ambedkar National Institute of Technology (NIT), Jalandhar (Punjab) invites online applications in the prescribed format for the recruitment of the following 29 Teaching Faculty Sarkari Naukri vacancy posts of Assistant Professors in various disciplines/subject/departments of NIT Jalandhar. (Advt. No. 05/2020)
NIT Jalandhar Assistant Professor Recruitment 2021 Vacancies
Assistant Professor: 29 vacancies (UR-14, EWS-02, OBC-07, SC-04, ...