ALL NOBEL PRIZES BETWEEN 1998 AND 2019 #EDUCRATSWEB

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  • Between 1901 and 2019, the Nobel Prizes and the Prize in Economic Sciences were awarded 597 times to 950 people and organizations. With some receiving the Nobel Prize more than once, this makes a total of 919 individuals and 24 organizations. Below, you can view the full list of Nobel Prizes and Nobel Laureates.

    2019

    The Nobel Prize in Physics 2019

    “for contributions to our understanding of the evolution of the universe and Earth’s place in the cosmos”

    James Peebles “for theoretical discoveries in physical cosmology”

    Michel Mayor and Didier Queloz “for the discovery of an exoplanet orbiting a solar-type star”

    The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2019

    John B. Goodenough, M. Stanley Whittingham and Akira Yoshino “for the development of lithium-ion batteries”

    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2019

    William G. Kaelin Jr, Sir Peter J. Ratcliffe and Gregg L. Semenza “for their discoveries of how cells sense and adapt to oxygen availability”

    The Nobel Prize in Literature 2019

    Peter Handke “for an influential work that with linguistic ingenuity has explored the periphery and the specificity of human experience”

    The Nobel Peace Prize 2019

    Abiy Ahmed Ali “for his efforts to achieve peace and international cooperation, and in particular for his decisive initiative to resolve the border conflict with neighbouring Eritrea”

    The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 2019

    Abhijit BanerjeeEsther Duflo and Michael Kremer “for their experimental approach to alleviating global poverty”

    2018

    The Nobel Prize in Physics 2018

    “for groundbreaking inventions in the field of laser physics”

    Arthur Ashkin “for the optical tweezers and their application to biological systems”

    Gérard Mourou and Donna Strickland “for their method of generating high-intensity, ultra-short optical pulses”

    The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2018

    Frances H. Arnold “for the directed evolution of enzymes” and George P. Smith and Sir Gregory P. Winter “for the phage display of peptides and antibodies”

    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2018

    James P. Allison and Tasuku Honjo
    “for their discovery of cancer therapy by inhibition of negative immune regulation”

    The Nobel Prize in Literature 2018

    Olga Tokarczuk “for a narrative imagination that with encyclopedic passion represents the crossing of boundaries as a form of life”

    The Nobel Peace Prize 2018

    Denis Mukwege and Nadia Murad
    “for their efforts to end the use of sexual violence as a weapon of war and armed conflict”

    The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 2018

    William D. Nordhaus “for integrating climate change into long-run macroeconomic analysis” and Paul M. Romer “for integrating technological innovations into long-run macroeconomic analysis”

    2017

    The Nobel Prize in Physics 2017

    Rainer Weiss, Barry C. Barish and Kip S. Thorne
    “for decisive contributions to the LIGO detector and the observation of gravitational waves”

    The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2017

    Jacques Dubochet, Joachim Frank and Richard Henderson
    “for developing cryo-electron microscopy for the high-resolution structure determination of biomolecules in solution”

    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2017

    Jeffrey C. Hall, Michael Rosbash and Michael W. Young
    “for their discoveries of molecular mechanisms controlling the circadian rhythm”

    The Nobel Prize in Literature 2017

    Kazuo Ishiguro
    “who, in novels of great emotional force, has uncovered the abyss beneath our illusory sense of connection with the world”

    The Nobel Peace Prize 2017

    International Campaign to Abolish Nuclear Weapons (ICAN)
    “for its work to draw attention to the catastrophic humanitarian consequences of any use of nuclear weapons and for its ground-breaking efforts to achieve a treaty-based prohibition of such weapons”

    The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 2017

    Richard H. Thaler
    “for his contributions to behavioural economics”

    2016

    The Nobel Prize in Physics 2016

    David J. Thouless, F. Duncan M. Haldane and J. Michael Kosterlitz
    “for theoretical discoveries of topological phase transitions and topological phases of matter”

    The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2016

    Jean-Pierre Sauvage, Sir J. Fraser Stoddart and Bernard L. Feringa
    “for the design and synthesis of molecular machines”

    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2016

    Yoshinori Ohsumi
    “for his discoveries of mechanisms for autophagy”

    The Nobel Prize in Literature 2016

    Bob Dylan
    “for having created new poetic expressions within the great American song tradition”

    The Nobel Peace Prize 2016

    Juan Manuel Santos
    “for his resolute efforts to bring the country’s more than 50-year-long civil war to an end”

    The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 2016

    Oliver Hart and Bengt Holmström
    “for their contributions to contract theory”

    2015

    The Nobel Prize in Physics 2015

    Takaaki Kajita and Arthur B. McDonald
    “for the discovery of neutrino oscillations, which shows that neutrinos have mass”

    The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2015

    Tomas Lindahl, Paul Modrich and Aziz Sancar
    “for mechanistic studies of DNA repair”

    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2015

    William C. Campbell and Satoshi Ōmura
    “for their discoveries concerning a novel therapy against infections caused by roundworm parasites”
    Tu Youyou
    “for her discoveries concerning a novel therapy against Malaria”

    The Nobel Prize in Literature 2015

    Svetlana Alexievich
    “for her polyphonic writings, a monument to suffering and courage in our time”

    The Nobel Peace Prize 2015

    National Dialogue Quartet
    “for its decisive contribution to the building of a pluralistic democracy in Tunisia in the wake of the Jasmine Revolution of 2011”

    The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 2015

    Angus Deaton
    “for his analysis of consumption, poverty, and welfare”

    2014

    The Nobel Prize in Physics 2014

    Isamu Akasaki, Hiroshi Amano and Shuji Nakamura
    “for the invention of efficient blue light-emitting diodes which has enabled bright and energy-saving white light sources”

    The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2014

    Eric Betzig, Stefan W. Hell and William E. Moerner
    “for the development of super-resolved fluorescence microscopy”

    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2014

    John O’Keefe, May-Britt Moser and Edvard I. Moser
    “for their discoveries of cells that constitute a positioning system in the brain”

    The Nobel Prize in Literature 2014

    Patrick Modiano
    “for the art of memory with which he has evoked the most ungraspable human destinies and uncovered the life-world of the occupation”

    The Nobel Peace Prize 2014

    Kailash Satyarthi and Malala Yousafzai
    “for their struggle against the suppression of children and young people and for the right of all children to education”

    The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 2014

    Jean Tirole
    “for his analysis of market power and regulation”

    2013

    The Nobel Prize in Physics 2013

    François Englert and Peter W. Higgs
    “for the theoretical discovery of a mechanism that contributes to our understanding of the origin of mass of subatomic particles, and which recently was confirmed through the discovery of the predicted fundamental particle, by the ATLAS and CMS experiments at CERN’s Large Hadron Collider”

    The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2013

    Martin Karplus, Michael Levitt and Arieh Warshel
    “for the development of multiscale models for complex chemical systems”

    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2013

    James E. Rothman, Randy W. Schekman and Thomas C. Südhof
    “for their discoveries of machinery regulating vesicle traffic, a major transport system in our cells”

    The Nobel Prize in Literature 2013

    Alice Munro
    “master of the contemporary short story”

    The Nobel Peace Prize 2013

    Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW)
    “for its extensive efforts to eliminate chemical weapons”

    The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 2013

    Eugene F. Fama, Lars Peter Hansen and Robert J. Shiller
    “for their empirical analysis of asset prices”

    2012

    The Nobel Prize in Physics 2012

    Serge Haroche and David J. Wineland
    “for ground-breaking experimental methods that enable measuring and manipulation of individual quantum systems”

    The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2012

    Robert J. Lefkowitz and Brian K. Kobilka
    “for studies of G-protein-coupled receptors”

    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2012

    Sir John B. Gurdon and Shinya Yamanaka
    “for the discovery that mature cells can be reprogrammed to become pluripotent”

    The Nobel Prize in Literature 2012

    Mo Yan
    “who with hallucinatory realism merges folk tales, history and the contemporary”

    The Nobel Peace Prize 2012

    European Union (EU)
    “for over six decades contributed to the advancement of peace and reconciliation, democracy and human rights in Europe”

    The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 2012

    Alvin E. Roth and Lloyd S. Shapley
    “for the theory of stable allocations and the practice of market design”

    2011

    The Nobel Prize in Physics 2011

    Saul Perlmutter, Brian P. Schmidt and Adam G. Riess
    “for the discovery of the accelerating expansion of the Universe through observations of distant supernovae”

    The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2011

    Dan Shechtman
    “for the discovery of quasicrystals”

    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2011

    Bruce A. Beutler and Jules A. Hoffmann
    “for their discoveries concerning the activation of innate immunity”
    Ralph M. Steinman
    “for his discovery of the dendritic cell and its role in adaptive immunity”

    The Nobel Prize in Literature 2011

    Tomas Tranströmer
    “because, through his condensed, translucent images, he gives us fresh access to reality”

    The Nobel Peace Prize 2011

    Ellen Johnson Sirleaf, Leymah Gbowee and Tawakkol Karman
    “for their non-violent struggle for the safety of women and for women’s rights to full participation in peace-building work”

    The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 2011

    Thomas J. Sargent and Christopher A. Sims
    “for their empirical research on cause and effect in the macroeconomy”

    2010

    The Nobel Prize in Physics 2010

    Andre Geim and Konstantin Novoselov
    “for groundbreaking experiments regarding the two-dimensional material graphene”

    The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2010

    Richard F. Heck, Ei-ichi Negishi and Akira Suzuki
    “for palladium-catalyzed cross couplings in organic synthesis”

    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2010

    Robert G. Edwards
    “for the development of in vitro fertilization”

    The Nobel Prize in Literature 2010

    Mario Vargas Llosa
    “for his cartography of structures of power and his trenchant images of the individual’s resistance, revolt, and defeat”

    The Nobel Peace Prize 2010

    Liu Xiaobo
    “for his long and non-violent struggle for fundamental human rights in China”

    The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 2010

    Peter A. Diamond, Dale T. Mortensen and Christopher A. Pissarides
    “for their analysis of markets with search frictions”

    2009

    The Nobel Prize in Physics 2009

    Charles Kuen Kao
    “for groundbreaking achievements concerning the transmission of light in fibers for optical communication”
    Willard S. Boyle and George E. Smith
    “for the invention of an imaging semiconductor circuit – the CCD sensor”

    The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2009

    Venkatraman Ramakrishnan, Thomas A. Steitz and Ada E. Yonath
    “for studies of the structure and function of the ribosome”

    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2009

    Elizabeth H. Blackburn, Carol W. Greider and Jack W. Szostak
    “for the discovery of how chromosomes are protected by telomeres and the enzyme telomerase”

    The Nobel Prize in Literature 2009

    Herta Müller
    “who, with the concentration of poetry and the frankness of prose, depicts the landscape of the dispossessed”

    The Nobel Peace Prize 2009

    Barack H. Obama
    “for his extraordinary efforts to strengthen international diplomacy and cooperation between peoples”

    The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 2009

    Elinor Ostrom
    “for her analysis of economic governance, especially the commons”

    Oliver E. Williamson
    “for his analysis of economic governance, especially the boundaries of the firm”

    2008

    The Nobel Prize in Physics 2008

    Yoichiro Nambu
    “for the discovery of the mechanism of spontaneous broken symmetry in subatomic physics”
    Makoto Kobayashi and Toshihide Maskawa
    “for the discovery of the origin of the broken symmetry which predicts the existence of at least three families of quarks in nature”

    The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2008

    Osamu Shimomura, Martin Chalfie and Roger Y. Tsien
    “for the discovery and development of the green fluorescent protein, GFP”

    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2008

    Harald zur Hausen
    “for his discovery of human papilloma viruses causing cervical cancer”
    Françoise Barré-Sinoussi and Luc Montagnier
    “for their discovery of human immunodeficiency virus”

    The Nobel Prize in Literature 2008

    Jean-Marie Gustave Le Clézio
    “author of new departures, poetic adventure and sensual ecstasy, explorer of a humanity beyond and below the reigning civilization”

    The Nobel Peace Prize 2008

    Martti Ahtisaari
    “for his important efforts, on several continents and over more than three decades, to resolve international conflicts”

    The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 2008

    Paul Krugman
    “for his analysis of trade patterns and location of economic activity”

    2007

    The Nobel Prize in Physics 2007

    Albert Fert and Peter Grünberg
    “for the discovery of Giant Magnetoresistance”

    The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2007

    Gerhard Ertl
    “for his studies of chemical processes on solid surfaces”

    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2007

    Mario R. Capecchi, Sir Martin J. Evans and Oliver Smithies
    “for their discoveries of principles for introducing specific gene modifications in mice by the use of embryonic stem cells”

    The Nobel Prize in Literature 2007

    Doris Lessing
    “that epicist of the female experience, who with scepticism, fire and visionary power has subjected a divided civilisation to scrutiny”

    The Nobel Peace Prize 2007

    Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and Albert Arnold (Al) Gore Jr.
    “for their efforts to build up and disseminate greater knowledge about man-made climate change, and to lay the foundations for the measures that are needed to counteract such change”

    The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 2007

    Leonid Hurwicz, Eric S. Maskin and Roger B. Myerson
    “for having laid the foundations of mechanism design theory”

    2006

    The Nobel Prize in Physics 2006

    John C. Mather and George F. Smoot
    “for their discovery of the blackbody form and anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background radiation”

    The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2006

    Roger D. Kornberg
    “for his studies of the molecular basis of eukaryotic transcription”

    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2006

    Andrew Z. Fire and Craig C. Mello
    “for their discovery of RNA interference – gene silencing by double-stranded RNA”

    The Nobel Prize in Literature 2006

    Orhan Pamuk
    “who in the quest for the melancholic soul of his native city has discovered new symbols for the clash and interlacing of cultures”

    The Nobel Peace Prize 2006

    Muhammad Yunus and Grameen Bank
    “for their efforts to create economic and social development from below”

    The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 2006

    Edmund S. Phelps
    “for his analysis of intertemporal tradeoffs in macroeconomic policy”

    2005

    The Nobel Prize in Physics 2005

    Roy J. Glauber
    “for his contribution to the quantum theory of optical coherence”
    John L. Hall and Theodor W. Hänsch
    “for their contributions to the development of laser-based precision spectroscopy, including the optical frequency comb technique”

    The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2005

    Yves Chauvin, Robert H. Grubbs and Richard R. Schrock
    “for the development of the metathesis method in organic synthesis”

    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2005

    Barry J. Marshall and J. Robin Warren
    “for their discovery of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori and its role in gastritis and peptic ulcer disease”

    The Nobel Prize in Literature 2005

    Harold Pinter
    “who in his plays uncovers the precipice under everyday prattle and forces entry into oppression’s closed rooms”

    The Nobel Peace Prize 2005

    International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and Mohamed ElBaradei
    “for their efforts to prevent nuclear energy from being used for military purposes and to ensure that nuclear energy for peaceful purposes is used in the safest possible way”

    The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 2005

    Robert J. Aumann and Thomas C. Schelling
    “for having enhanced our understanding of conflict and cooperation through game-theory analysis”

    2004

    The Nobel Prize in Physics 2004

    David J. Gross, H. David Politzer and Frank Wilczek
    “for the discovery of asymptotic freedom in the theory of the strong interaction”

    The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2004

    Aaron Ciechanover, Avram Hershko and Irwin Rose
    “for the discovery of ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation”

    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2004

    Richard Axel and Linda B. Buck
    “for their discoveries of odorant receptors and the organization of the olfactory system”

    The Nobel Prize in Literature 2004

    Elfriede Jelinek
    “for her musical flow of voices and counter-voices in novels and plays that with extraordinary linguistic zeal reveal the absurdity of society’s clichés and their subjugating power”

    The Nobel Peace Prize 2004

    Wangari Muta Maathai
    “for her contribution to sustainable development, democracy and peace”

    The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 2004

    Finn E. Kydland and Edward C. Prescott
    “for their contributions to dynamic macroeconomics: the time consistency of economic policy and the driving forces behind business cycles”

    2003

    The Nobel Prize in Physics 2003

    Alexei A. Abrikosov, Vitaly L. Ginzburg and Anthony J. Leggett
    “for pioneering contributions to the theory of superconductors and superfluids”

    The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2003

    “for discoveries concerning channels in cell membranes”
    Peter Agre
    “for the discovery of water channels”

    Roderick MacKinnon
    “for structural and mechanistic studies of ion channels”

    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2003

    Paul C. Lauterbur and Sir Peter Mansfield
    “for their discoveries concerning magnetic resonance imaging”

    The Nobel Prize in Literature 2003

    John M. Coetzee
    “who in innumerable guises portrays the surprising involvement of the outsider”

    The Nobel Peace Prize 2003

    Shirin Ebadi
    “for her efforts for democracy and human rights. She has focused especially on the struggle for the rights of women and children”

    The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 2003

    Robert F. Engle III
    “for methods of analyzing economic time series with time-varying volatility (ARCH)”

    Clive W.J. Granger
    “for methods of analyzing economic time series with common trends (cointegration)”

    2002

    The Nobel Prize in Physics 2002

    Raymond Davis Jr. and Masatoshi Koshiba
    “for pioneering contributions to astrophysics, in particular for the detection of cosmic neutrinos”
    Riccardo Giacconi
    “for pioneering contributions to astrophysics, which have led to the discovery of cosmic X-ray sources”

    The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2002

    “for the development of methods for identification and structure analyses of biological macromolecules”
    John B. Fenn and Koichi Tanaka
    “for their development of soft desorption ionisation methods for mass spectrometric analyses of biological macromolecules”
    Kurt Wüthrich
    “for his development of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy for determining the three-dimensional structure of biological macromolecules in solution”

    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2002

    Sydney Brenner, H. Robert Horvitz and John E. Sulston
    “for their discoveries concerning genetic regulation of organ development and programmed cell death'”

    The Nobel Prize in Literature 2002

    Imre Kertész
    “for writing that upholds the fragile experience of the individual against the barbaric arbitrariness of history”

    The Nobel Peace Prize 2002

    Jimmy Carter
    “for his decades of untiring effort to find peaceful solutions to international conflicts, to advance democracy and human rights, and to promote economic and social development”

    The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 2002

    Daniel Kahneman
    “for having integrated insights from psychological research into economic science, especially concerning human judgment and decision-making under uncertainty”

    Vernon L. Smith
    “for having established laboratory experiments as a tool in empirical economic analysis, especially in the study of alternative market mechanisms”

    2001

    The Nobel Prize in Physics 2001

    Eric A. Cornell, Wolfgang Ketterle and Carl E. Wieman
    “for the achievement of Bose-Einstein condensation in dilute gases of alkali atoms, and for early fundamental studies of the properties of the condensates”

    The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2001

    William S. Knowles and Ryoji Noyori
    “for their work on chirally catalysed hydrogenation reactions”
    K. Barry Sharpless
    “for his work on chirally catalysed oxidation reactions”

    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2001

    Leland H. Hartwell, Tim Hunt and Sir Paul M. Nurse
    “for their discoveries of key regulators of the cell cycle”

    The Nobel Prize in Literature 2001

    Sir Vidiadhar Surajprasad Naipaul
    “for having united perceptive narrative and incorruptible scrutiny in works that compel us to see the presence of suppressed histories”

    The Nobel Peace Prize 2001

    United Nations (U.N.) and Kofi Annan
    “for their work for a better organized and more peaceful world”

    The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 2001

    George A. Akerlof, A. Michael Spence and Joseph E. Stiglitz
    “for their analyses of markets with asymmetric information”

    2000

    The Nobel Prize in Physics 2000

    “for basic work on information and communication technology”
    Zhores I. Alferov and Herbert Kroemer
    “for developing semiconductor heterostructures used in high-speed- and opto-electronics”
    Jack S. Kilby
    “for his part in the invention of the integrated circuit”

    The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2000

    Alan J. Heeger, Alan G. MacDiarmid and Hideki Shirakawa
    “for the discovery and development of conductive polymers”

    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2000

    Arvid Carlsson, Paul Greengard and Eric R. Kandel
    “for their discoveries concerning signal transduction in the nervous system”

    The Nobel Prize in Literature 2000

    Gao Xingjian
    “for an æuvre of universal validity, bitter insights and linguistic ingenuity, which has opened new paths for the Chinese novel and drama”

    The Nobel Peace Prize 2000

    Kim Dae-jung
    “for his work for democracy and human rights in South Korea and in East Asia in general, and for peace and reconciliation with North Korea in particular”

    The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 2000

    James J. Heckman
    “for his development of theory and methods for analyzing selective samples”

    Daniel L. McFadden
    “for his development of theory and methods for analyzing discrete choice”

    1999

    The Nobel Prize in Physics 1999

    Gerardus ‘t Hooft and Martinus J.G. Veltman
    “for elucidating the quantum structure of electroweak interactions in physics”

    The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1999

    Ahmed H. Zewail
    “for his studies of the transition states of chemical reactions using femtosecond spectroscopy”

    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1999

    Günter Blobel
    “for the discovery that proteins have intrinsic signals that govern their transport and localization in the cell”

    The Nobel Prize in Literature 1999

    Günter Grass
    “whose frolicsome black fables portray the forgotten face of history”

    The Nobel Peace Prize 1999

    Médecins Sans Frontières
    “in recognition of the organization’s pioneering humanitarian work on several continents”

    The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1999

    Robert A. Mundell
    “for his analysis of monetary and fiscal policy under different exchange rate regimes and his analysis of optimum currency areas”

    1998

    The Nobel Prize in Physics 1998

    Robert B. Laughlin, Horst L. Störmer and Daniel C. Tsui
    “for their discovery of a new form of quantum fluid with fractionally charged excitations”

    The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1998

    Walter Kohn
    “for his development of the density-functional theory”

    John A. Pople
    “for his development of computational methods in quantum chemistry”

    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1998

    Robert F. Furchgott, Louis J. Ignarro and Ferid Murad
    “for their discoveries concerning nitric<

    All Nobel Prizes Between 1998 and 2019
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