educratsweb logo


Scientists from Raman Research Institute (RRI), an autonomous institute under the Department of Science &Technology along with IISER Pune and Paris Diderot University, have found out that spectrin, which are flexible rod-shaped molecules present in axons, act as ‘shock absorbers’ to protect axons from stretch-induced damage.

 

The study can help in understanding and treatment of concussion from head injuries as well as stretch-induced nerve injuries.

 

Axons are long tubular extensions of nerve cells that transmit electrical signals across long distances and can be up to a meter long in the case of humans. At such lengths, they are subjected to large stretch deformations during limb or other bodily movements. Axons in the brain too undergo significant deformations, even during normal activities like jumping (the human brain is as soft and wobbly as edible jelly).

 

Probing into what special strategies axons adopt to protect themselves from damage during such stretch deformations, the scientists zeroed in on the molecule spectrin, a cytoskeletal protein.

 

In their research published in journal eLife, with Dr. Sushil Dubey as the lead author, Prof. Pramod Pullarkatand his team from RRI showed that neuronal cells may have evolved a clever strategy using an etched optical fiber attached to a piezo drive as a force-sensing cantilever to stretch live axons and to measure the resultant tension. Piezo drives attached to optical fiber is used to stretch on axons where optical fiber acts as a force-sensing cantilever. The resulting tension measured along the axon comes from the axonal cytoskeleton (consisting of biopolymers), of which spectrin is a part.

 

The RRI team took clues from a recent discovery, which showed that axons have a periodic scaffold consisting of longitudinally arranged long spectrin protein molecules. The function of this skeleton was a puzzle. The experiments by the RRI team on axons that are biochemically or genetically modified to disrupt specific cytoskeletal components revealed that the spectrin scaffold has a prominent mechanical role.

 

Earlier single-molecule experiments had shown that spectrin molecules contain several folded regions which can unfold when the protein is stretched and refold when released, thus acting as molecular bellows. By comparing detailed tension measurements on axons with a mathematical model that describes such a mechanism, the RRI team showed that this process helps axons to buffer tension and dissipate excess elastic energy. Unlike a linear spring, where the tension increases proportionally with stretch, axonal tension exhibits a plateau-like region where tension is only weakly dependent on stretch, due to the unfolding process. This suggests that spectrins can act as axonal ‘shock absorbers’ to protect axons from stretch-induced damage.

 

The brain undergoes significant shear deformations (up to 5% of strain) even under normal activities such as jumping. In contact sports, brain concussion occurs and is a leading cause of injuries. This study will have significant implications to our understanding of concussion that result from head impacts as well as stretch-induced nerve injuries.

 

Fig: Probing axonal mechanics using home-built Micro-Extension Rheometer reveals strain-softening in axons that protect neurons from damage via reversibly unfolding of spectrin repeated units.

(A) A schematic of the home-developed force apparatus that uses an etched optical fiber as a cantilever to stretch axons and to sense force.

(B) Typical force and tension response of an axon to increasing strain explored using successive strain steps. The inset shows the images of the axon before and after stretch.

 

(C) Typical structure of a neuronal cell and its cytoskeleton. The outermost scaffold of the axonal cytoskeleton has an array of periodically spaced rings composed of F-actin filaments.

The actin rings are interconnected by spectrin tetramers, which are aligned along the axonal axis.

 

[Publication: https://elifesciences.org/articles/51772

For more details contact Dr. Sushil Dubey (dubeys@rri.res.in,+917760581324)]

educratsweb.com

Posted by: educratsweb.com

I am owner of this website and bharatpages.in . I Love blogging and Enjoy to listening old song. ....
Enjoy this Author Blog/Website visit http://twitter.com/bharatpages

if you have any information regarding Job, Study Material or any other information related to career. you can Post your article on our website. Click here to Register & Share your contents.
For Advertisment or any query email us at educratsweb@gmail.com

RELATED POST
1. Increase in Domestic Violence against Women
From the beginning of lockdown due to Covid 19 pandemic, the National Commission for Women (NCW) launched an Ad campaign through electronic media and social media inviting women who have suffered any kind of violence to come forward and report it. Further, in addition to handling complaints received through regular modes, NCW has also launched a WhatsApp number 7217735372 on 10.04.2020 for reporting domestic violence cases. The additional modes provided by NCW facilitated reporting of cases, including fr
2. Shri Radha Mohan Singh Distributes Electric Chaak to 150 Kumhar Families in Bihar under KVIC Kumhar Sashaktikaran Yojana
In a major step towards creating sustainable self-employment, Khadi and Village Industries Commission (KVIC) today distributed electric potter wheels (chaak) to 150 potter families in East Champaran district in Bihar. Member of Parliament and former Union Agriculture Minister, Shri Radha Mohan Singh distributed electric chaak and other equipment like blunger machines and pug mills to the potters in presence of KVIC Chairman Shri Vinai Kumar Saxena. The beneficiaries who were given electric chaak after co
3. Representation in Panchayats
‘Panchayat’, being “Local government”, is a State subject and part of State list of Seventh Schedule of Constitution of India. Clause (3) of Article 243D of the Constitution ensures participation of women in Panchayati Raj Institutions by mandating not less than one- third reservation for women out of total number of seats to be filled by direct election and number of offices of chairpersons of Panchayats. As per the information available with the Ministry, 20 States namely A
4. President of India Shri Ram Nath Kovind virtually conferred the National Service Scheme (NSS) Awards for the year 2018-19 today
The President of India Shri Ram Nath Kovindvirtually conferred the National Service Scheme (NSS) Awards for the year 2018-19 on 24th September, 2020 from Rashtrapati Bhawan, New Delhi today. UnionMinister of Youth Affairs and SportsShri Kiren Rijijuattended the ceremony from Vigyan Bhavan, New Delhi. The National Service Scheme (NSS) Award for the year 2018-19 was given to 42 awardees in 3 different categories like University/ +2 Council, NSS Units and their Programme Officers and NSS Volunteers. Secreta
5. Violence against Women
The year-wise data of crime against women as per National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB) during the years 2016 to 2018 is at Annexure-I.   The Government attaches high priority to ensuring safety and security of women and has undertaken various legislative and schematic interventions in this regard. These include legislations such as ‘The Criminal Law (Amendment) Act, 2018’, ‘The Criminal Law (Amendment) Act, 2013’, ‘The Sexual Harassme
6. Extension of date of implementation of Toys (Quality Control) Order, 2020
The Department for Promotion of Industry and Internal Trade (DPIIT), Ministry of Commerce and Industry, Govt. of India today issued notification, extending the date of implementation of Toys (Quality Control) Order, 2020 as 1.1.2021 in place of 1.9.2020. This decision allows domestic manufacturers four months of extra time to make necessary arrangements for compliance of standards in view of difficulties arising out of COVID-19 pandemic. Sources https://pib.gov.in/PressReleseDetail.as
7. Central Government Issued an Advisory to All States / UTs and Their Real Estate Regulatory Authorities to Treat Covid-19 Pandemic AS Force Majeure and Automatically Extend the Registration/Completion date of all Projects Registered Under Rera for a Period of 6 Months
In view of the situation created by the global pandemic COVID-19 (Corona Virus), reverse migration of labourers and breakdown of construction materials supply chains, the construction activities of real estate projects were affected adversely across the country. To protect the interest of all stakeholders including homebuyers, Central Government issued an advisory to all States / UTs and their Real Estate Regulatory Authorities to treat COVID-19 pandemic as force majeure and automatica
8. Strengthening of ICAR
The Indian Council for Agricultural Research (ICAR) under Department of Agricultural Research and Education (DARE), GOI is the apex organisation to promote Agricultural Research and Development in the country. National Agricultural Research System (NARS) under DARE/ICAR consists of 103 Agricultural Research Institutes, 75 Agricultural Universities, 82 All India Coordinated Research Projects/Network Projects and 11 Agriculture Technology Application Research Institutes ably supported by a network of 721 K
9. Extension of deadlines for various compliances under Companies Act
After considering the various representations of stakeholders and the impact of COVID-19 pandemic, in order to facilitate defaulting companies to make a fresh start on a clean slate by filing documents required to be filed under the Companies Act, 2013 and Rules made thereunder on the  MCA21 registry, the Ministry vide General Circular no.12/2020 dated 30.03.2020, launched a scheme named “Companies Fresh Start Scheme, 2020 (CFSS-2020)” condoning the delay in timely filing of the Annu
10. Cross Border Intrusion
Regular attempts for infiltration by terrorists in Jammu and Kashmir are sponsored and supported from across the border. The number of attempts of infiltration and estimated net infiltration in Jammu and Kashmir, month-wise, during the last 12 months (August 2019 – July 2020) are given below:   S. No. Month
11. Make In India
Recently, Government has taken various steps in addition to ongoing schemes to boost domestic investments in India. These include the National Infrastructure Pipeline, Reduction in Corporate Tax, easing liquidity problems of NBFCs and Banks, various policy measures to boost domestic manufacturing. Government of India has also promoted domestic manufacturing of goods through public procurement orders, Phased Manufacturing Programme (PMP), Schemes for Production Linked Incentives of various Ministries.
12. Long-Term, Time-Bound, National Level Strategy to Tackle Air Pollution-National Clean Air Programme (NCAP)
The Central Government launched National Clean Air Programme (NCAP) as a long-term, time-bound, national level strategy to tackle the air pollution problem across the country in a comprehensive manner with targets to achieve 20% to 30% reduction in Particulate Matter concentrations by 2024 keeping 2017 as the base year for the comparison of concentration. Under NCAP, 122 non-attainment cities have been identified across the country based on the Air Quality data from 2014-2018.  A list of Smart Citie
13. Electrification of Railway Lines
Total Broad Gauge (BG) Route kilometer (RKM) Indian Railways (including Konkan Railway) is 63,631. As on 01.04.2020, 39,866 RKM have been electrified. Zone wise length of Rail line yet to be electrified are as under:   Zonal Railways Total BG RKM Electrified RKM
14. Promotion of Agricultural Research
To promote agricultural research and education, and to make the country self- reliant in the agriculture sector, DARE/ICAR has developed a country wide network of 103 Agricultural Research Institutes, 75 Agricultural Universities including 3 Central Agricultural Universities and 11 Agriculture Technology Application Research Institutes ably supported by a network of Krishi Vigyan Kendras (KVKs) at the district level mandated with technology assessment and demonstration for wider application and capacity
15. Applications invited for the National Highway Excellence Awards 2019
Applications invited for the National Highway Excellence Awards 2019Ministry of Road Transport and Highways has invited proposals for the National Highways Excellence Awards for the year 2020. The awards are given every year in seven categories – Excellence in Project Management, Excellence in Operation and Maintenance, Green Highway, Innov
16. Shri Gangwar Introduces Three Labour Codes in Lok Sabha Heralding The Path of Game Changing Labour Welfare Reforms in The Country
Minister of State (I/C) for Labour and Employment, Shri Santosh Gangwar today introduced three Labour Codes in the Lok Sabha heralding the path of game changing labour welfare reforms in the country. These bills are (i) Industrial Relations Code, 2020, (ii) Code on Occupational Safety, Health & Working Conditions Bill, 2020 (iii) Social Security Code, 2020.  While introducing the bills he mentioned that the Code on Wages has already been approved by Parliament in the month of August, 2019 and ha
17. On-going developmental projects in Assam under the Ministry of DoNER
The details regarding the on-going projects in Assam under the Ministry of DoNER is as under: S.No Scheme Name No. of projects Approved Cost (Rs. in cr.)
18. Development Action Plan for Scheduled Castes
As a part of the socio-economic and financial inclusion strategy of the Government to ensure that all segments of the society, particularly the Scheduled Castes, are benefited and adequate funds are allocated for their development, the concept of Development Action Plan for SCs (DAPSC - earlier known as Allocation for Welfare of SCs or SCSP) is being implemented by the Government so that targeted financial and physical benefits can accrue to the Scheduled Castes. Under DAPSC, certain percentage of funds
19. Modernisation of Armed Forces
The details of Budget Estimates (BE), Revised Estimates (RE) and Actual Expenditure (Actuals)  on the modernization(Capital Acquisition) of Armed Forces, under Defence Services Estimates (DSE), for the last five years and the current year are as under:-  (Rs. in Crore) Year Budget Estimates
20. Global Competition in Steel Industry
Indian steel companies including the public sector steel companies have consistently enhanced their capacities, production and sales including exports over the years. Capacity for domestic crude steel production has been expanded from 109.85 Million Tonnes Per Annum (MTPA) in 2014-15 to 142.29 MTPA in 2019-20 while crude steel production has gone up from 88.98 MTPA in 2014-15 to 109.14 MTPA in 2019-20. India was a net exporter of steel in 2019-20 and during the period of April-August, 2020, steel exports
21. The approach of the Government has led to Minorities being equal partners with other communities, in the educational & socio-economic development of the country—Shri Mukhtar Abbas Naqvi
The Government is working with commitment to ensure Development with Dignity, Empowerment without Discrimination, which has ensured prosperity in life of weaker and other needy sections of the society including Minorities. This approach of the Government  has led to Minorities being equal partners with other communities, in the educational & socio-economic development of the country. No such report received in the Ministry to suggest that certain groups are making organised efforts to spread dis
22. ECGC Limited
ECGC Limited was set up in 1957 in Mumbai under the Companies Act 1956 to provide export credit insurance services to exporters and banks to promote and support exports from India. The performance details of ECGC for the last three financial years and current year are given below: (Amount in ₹ Crore) Financial Year 2017
23. Import and In-house production of PNG & CNG
As per information provided by Petroleum Planning and Analysis Cell (PPAC), approximately 9,228 MMSCM of Natural gas has been produced domestically and approximately 9,966 MMSCM of LNG has been imported in the country during the period April-July, 2020. This gas also caters to demand of Piped Natural Gas (PNG) and Compressed Natural Gas (CNG). IOCL is executing 517 km long Paradip-Haldia-Barauni Oil 30" capacity augmentation pipeline project. IOCL has informed that physical progress of 43.
24. Various initiatives taken by Ministry of Steel for capacity building
The National Steel Policy envisages achievement of 300 MTPA crude steel capacity by 2030-31. Towards achievement of this goal Ministry of Steel has taken several initiatives namely:- (i)        Domestically Manufactured Iron & Steel Products Policy for promoting procurement of Made in India steel by Government agencies. (ii)       Steel Scrap Policy for enhancing availability of domestically generated scrap.
25. Shri Gangwar launched virtual hearing facility in quasi-judicial cases under EPF & MP Act, 1952 through Video conferencing
The 227th Meeting of the Central Board of Trustees (CBT), EPF was held today under the Chairmanship of Shri Santosh Kumar Gangwar, Minister of State for Labour & Employment (I/C), and Vice Chairmanship of Shri Heeralal Samariya, Secretary (L&E), Central Provident Fund Commissioner, Sh. Sunil Barthwal, conducted the meeting as Member Secretary, CBT, EPF through Video Conference mode.   Following were the highlights of the Central Board Meeting:-  
26 बिहार तकनीकी सेवा आयोग | आयुष चिकित्सा पदाधिकारी की नियुक्ति हेतु विज्ञापान #Bihar 28 Days Remaining for Apply
बिहार तकनीकी सेवा आयोग | आयुष चिकित्सा पदाधिकारी की नियुक्ति हेतु विज्ञापान बिहा ...
27 ICMR Scientist-B vacancy Recruitment 2020 #Scientist & Research 6 Days Remaining for Apply
Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) under Department of Health Research, Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, Government of India will conduct a computer-based examination on 01/11/2020 for recruitment of various Scientist-B (Medical/Non-Medical) vacancy posts and hence invites online application on prescribed format from Indian nationals for filling up these Government Job Vacancy posts of Scientist-B in various disciplines. (Advertisement No. ICMR/SC-B/2020) ICMR Scientist-B Recruitmen ...
28 UPSC Government Jobs Vacancy Recruitment 10/2020 #UPSC 5 Days Remaining for Apply
Union Public Service Commission (UPSC), Dholpur House, New Delhi invites Online application on prescribed recruitment form by 01/10/2020 for following Sarkari Naukri Government Jobs vacancy posts especially Specialist (Faculty (Assistant Professor) and Assistant Director (Statistics - Census Operations etc. in various Central Government Departments/Organisations in the prescribed online format (Advt. No. 10/2020). UPSC Government Jobs Advt. No. 10/2020 Vacancies ...
29 TNUSRB recruitment 2020: Notification released for 10,908 to Police Constable, Jail Warder & other posts #Tamil Nadu 30 Days Remaining for Apply
Tamil Nadu Uniformed Service Recruitment Board (TNUSRB) on Thursday released a notification for the recruitment of Grade II Police Constable, Grade II Jail Warder, & Fireman vacancies on its official website. The interested candidates can apply online for TNUSRB common recruitment 2020 through the official website of TNUSRB — tnusrbonline.org — from September 26. The last date to submit the online applications for TNUSRB recruitment 2020 is October 26. The common recruitmen ...
30 Various Job in Institute of Company Secretaries of India (ICSI) #Jobs 4 Days Remaining for Apply
                                                              ICSI House , 22 , Institutional Area, Lodi Road, New Delhi –110003 ...
We would love to hear your thoughts, concerns or problems with anything so we can improve our website educratsweb.com ! visit https://forms.gle/jDz4fFqXuvSfQmUC9 and submit your valuable feedback.
Save this page as PDF | Recommend to your Friends

http://educratsweb(dot)com http://educratsweb.com/content.php?id=2387 http://educratsweb.com educratsweb.com educratsweb