World mosquito day is celebrated annually on August 20. It is a commemoration of a British doctor, Sir Ronald Ross’s discovery in 1897 that ‘female mosquitoes transmit malaria between humans’. The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine organizes world mosquito day celebrations every year, since the 1930s.
Mosquitoes are one of the deadliest animals in the world. Their ability to carry and spread diseases to humans causes millions of deaths every year. There are several different mosquitoes that can carry many different diseases. Aedes, Anopheles, Culex mosquitoes act as vectors (living organisms that can transmit infectious diseases between humans or from animals to humans) for the following diseases-
Aedes: Chikungunya, Dengue fever, Lymphatic filariasis, Rift Valley fever, Yellow fever, Zika
Anopheles: Malaria, Lymphatic filariasis (in Africa)
Culex: Japanese encephalitis, Lymphatic filariasis, West Nile fever
Facts about mosquito borne diseases:
Prevent mosquito borne diseases by ‘Integrated vector management (IVM)’: IVM includes:
(a) Vector surveillance- Larval surveys and adult surveys are important for early detection of mosquito population so that proper control measures can be initiated at an early stage.
(b) Vector management- It includes methods to eliminate mosquito breeding and adult mosquito population. These are –
(i) Environment management:
It includes efforts to reduce actual or potential larval (immature stages of mosquitoes) habitats in and around houses by:
(ii) Biological control-
(iii) Chemical control-
(c) Personal protective/preventive measures-
The National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme (NVBDCP)* It is one of the technical departments of the Directorate General of Health Services under the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India and is the nodal agency responsible for the prevention and control of all vector-borne diseases in India.
*National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme- http://nvbdcp.gov.in/index.php
Related link- https://www.nhp.gov.in/small-bite-big-threats_pg