Ministry of Tribal Affairs has been implementing a separate Central Sector Scheme ‘Eklavya Model Residential Schools’ (EMRSs) from 2019-20. The objective of EMRS is to provide quality upper primary, secondary and senior secondary level education to Scheduled Tribe (ST) students to enable them to access the best opportunities in education and to bring them at par with the general population. 285 EMRSs are currently functional across the country.
As per Census 2011, literacy rate of Scheduled Tribes (STs) was 59% whereas the overall literacy rate was 73% at all India level.
As per Periodic Labour Force Survey (PLFS) report 2017-18 published by Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation, literacy rate for STs is 67.7% and corresponding figure over all is 76.9%. The PLFS 2018-19 report reveals an improvement in literacy rate of STs at 69.4% as compared to 78.1% over all.
Government is implementing a number of schemes / programmes to increase the literacy rates and education level of STs, which are given below:
GOVERNMENT SCHEMES / PROGRAMMES INTER-ALIA BEING IMPLEMENTED TO INCREASE THE LITERACY RATES AND EDUCATION LEVEL OF STS
Ashram Schools: Funds are provided to States for setting up residential schools for STs for primary, middle, secondary and senior secondary levels of education.
ST Hostels: Central assistance is given to States/UTs/Universities for construction of new hostel buildings and/or extension of existing hostels.
Scheme of Strengthening Education among ST Girls in Low Literacy Districts: 100% Grant-in-Aid is given to NGO / Voluntary Organizations for running and maintenance of educational complexes for ST girls.
Post Matric Scholarship and Pre-Matric Scholarship for ST students studying in classes IX & X.
Funds are provided under Special Central Assistance to Tribal Sub-Scheme (SCA to TSP), Grants under Article 275 (1) of the Constitution and Scheme for Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups (PVTG) for various interventions relating to improvement of education including construction of hostels, schools, construction of boundary walls in schools, construction of playground, toilets and arrangement of drinking water, kitchen garden in schools etc.
Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA), a Centrally Sponsored Scheme is also being implemented in conjunction with the Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act, 2009 for universalisation of elementary education for all children in the 6-14 age group.
The National Council for Education Research and Training (NCERT) in the National Curriculum Framework, 2005 (NCF) makes it clear that language and culture are important to all children's learning including Scheduled Tribes. SSA aims to develop context specific interventions.
Kasturba Gandhi Balika Vidyalayas (KGBVs) are residential schools from class VI to XII for girls belonging to disadvantaged groups such as SC, ST, OBC, Minority and Below Poverty Line (BPL). The objective behind establishing KGBVs is to ensure access to quality education to girls from disadvantaged groups by setting up residential schools and to reduce gender gaps at all levels of school education.
States are also advised for expansion of scope of education for Tribal children to include sports, physical education, vocational education, Tribal Art, painting, crafts, health, hygiene and nutrition, traditional food (minor millet) in school meals, etc., to make the school education useful, relevant and interesting for the children and tribal communities.
This information was given by Union Ministerfor Tribal Affairs Shri Arjun Munda in a written reply in Rajya Sabha today.
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