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भारतेंदु हरिश्चंद्र (1850-1885 ई.)

आधुनिक हिंदी साहित्य के जन्मदाता, बहुमुखी प्रतिभा के धनी हरिश्चंद्र का जन्म काशी के इतिहास-प्रसिध्द अमीचंद जगत सेठ के प्रसिध्द परिवार में हुआ। पिता गोपालचंद्र स्वयं कवि थे। हरिश्चंद्र भी बचपन से ही कविता करने लगे। स्वाध्याय से ही हिंदी, गुजराती, मराठी, राजस्थानी, बंगला, उर्दू तथा अंग्रेजी सीखी । ये 35 वर्ष की अल्पायु में ही स्वर्गवासी हो गए। हरिश्चंद्र अपने देश-प्रेम, साहित्य-प्रेम तथा ईश्वर-प्रेम के लिए प्रसिध्द हैं। इन्होंने प्रुचर साहित्य-सेवा की। इनके 175 ग्रंथ बताए जाते हैं, जिनमें 69 उपलब्ध है। मौलिक नाटक 'सत्य-हरिश्चंद्र 'भारत-दुर्दशा 'वैदिकी हिंसा हिंसा न भवति आदि हैं।

इन्होंने अनेक उपन्यास और लेख लिखे और प्रचुर संपादन कार्य भी किया। 'कवि वचन सुधा, 'हरिश्चंद्र मैगेजीन तथा स्त्रियों के लिए ' बालबोधिनी पत्रिकाएं निकालीं। ब्रजभाषा तथा खडी बोली दोनों में कविता लिखी। परंपरागत कविता संग्रह हैं- 'भक्ति-सर्वस्व, 'प्रबोधिनी, 'प्रेम-सरोवर, 'सतसई-शृंगार आदि तथा अन्य अनेक नवीन काव्य कृतियां हैं- 'सुमनांजलि, 'सुंदरी-तिलक तथा 'पावस कवित्त संग्रह आदि जिनमें देश-भक्ति तथा समाज-सुधार संबंधी कविताएं हैं। इन्होंने अनेक प्रकार से खडी बोली का प्रचार और प्रसार किया। 1880 में काशी की विद्वन्मंडली ने इन्हें 'भारतेंदु की उपाधि से विभूषित किया।

पद

मन की कासों पीर सुनाऊं।
बकनो बृथा, और पत खोनी, सबै चबाई गाऊं॥
कठिन दरद कोऊ नहिं हरिहै, धरिहै उलटो नाऊं॥
यह तौ जो जानै सोइ जानै, क्यों करि प्रगट जनाऊं॥
रोम-रोम प्रति नैन स्रवन मन, केहिं धुनि रूप लखाऊं।
बिना सुजान सिरोमणि री, किहिं हियरो काढि दिखाऊं॥
मरिमनि सखिन बियोग दुखिन क्यों, कहि निज दसा रोवाऊं।
'हरीचंद पिय मिलैं तो पग परि, गहि पटुका समझाऊं॥

हम सब जानति लोक की चालनि, क्यौं इतनौ बतरावति हौ
हित जामैं हमारो बनै सो करौ, सखियां तुम मेरी कहावति हौ॥
'हरिचंद जू जामै न लाभ कछू, हमैं बातनि क्यों बहरावति हौ।
सजनी मन हाथ हमारे नहीं, तुम कौन कों का समुझावति हौ॥
क्यों इन कोमल गोल कपोलन, देखि गुलाब को फूल लजायो॥
त्यों 'हरिचंद जू पंकज के दल, सो सुकुमार सबै अंग भायो॥

अमृत से जुग ओठ लसैं, नव पल्लव सो कर क्यों है सुहायो।
पाहप सो मन हो तौ सबै अंग, कोमल क्यों करतार बनायो॥
आजु लौं जो न मिले तौ कहा, हम तो तुम्हरे सब भांति कहावैं।
मेरो उराहनो है कछु नाहिं, सबै फल आपुने भाग को पावैं॥
जो 'हरिचनद भई सो भई, अब प्रान चले चहैं तासों सुनावैं।
प्यारे जू है जग की यह रीति, बिदा के समै सब कंठ लगावैं॥

गंगा-वर्णन

नव उज्ज्वल जलधार हार हीरक सी सोहति।
बिच-बिच छहरति बूंद मध्य मुक्ता मनि पोहति॥

लोल लहर लहि पवन एक पै इक इम आवत ।
जिमि नर-गन मन बिबिध मनोरथ करत मिटावत॥

सुभग स्वर्ग-सोपान सरिस सबके मन भावत।
दरसन मज्जन पान त्रिविध भय दूर मिटावत॥

श्रीहरि-पद-नख-चंद्रकांत-मनि-द्रवित सुधारस।
ब्रह्म कमण्डल मण्डन भव खण्डन सुर सरबस॥

शिवसिर-मालति-माल भगीरथ नृपति-पुण्य-फल।
एरावत-गत गिरिपति-हिम-नग-कण्ठहार कल॥

सगर-सुवन सठ सहस परस जल मात्र उधारन।
अगनित धारा रूप धारि सागर संचारन॥

यमुना-वर्णन

तरनि तनूजा तट तमाल तरुवर बहु छाये।
झुके कूल सों जल-परसन हित मनहु सुहाये॥

किधौं मुकुर मैं लखत उझकि सब निज-निज सोभा।
कै प्रनवत जल लानि परम पावन फल लोभा॥

मनु आतप वारन तीर को, सिमिट सबै छाये रहत।
कै हरि सेवा हित नै रहे, निरखि नैन मन सुख लहत॥

कं तीर पर अमल कमल सोभित बहु भांतिन।
कहुं सैवालन मध्य कुमुदनी लग रहि पांतिन॥

मनु दृग धारि अनेक जमुन निरखत निज सोभा।
कै उमगे प्रिय प्रिया प्रेम के अनगिन गोभा॥

कै करिके कर बहु पीय को, टेरत निज ढिंग सोहई।
कै पूजन को उपचार लै, चलति मिलन मन मोहई॥

भारतेंदु हरिश्चंद्र (1850-1885 ई.)
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