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Premchand (1880-1936)

Premchand was the pen name adopted by the Hindi writer Dhanpatrai who was born on 31 July 1880 at Lamahi near Varanasi. His early education was in a madarasa under a Maulavi, where he learnt Urdu. When he was studying in the ninth class he was married, much against his wishes. He was then fifteen. In 1919, while he was a teacher at Gorakhpur, he passed his B.A., with English, Persian and History. He had a second marriage with Shivarani Devi, a child-widow, who wrote a book on him, 'Premchand Gharmein' after his death. Premchand's literary career started as a freelancer in Urdu. In his early short stories he depicted the patriotic upsurge that was sweeping the land in the first decade of the present century. Soz-e-Watan, a collection of such stories published by Premchand in 1907, attracted the attention of the British government. In 1914, when Premchand switched over to Hindi, he had already established his reputation as a fiction writer in Urdu. Premchand was the first Hindi author to introduce realism in his writings. He pioneered the new art form – fiction with a social purpose. He wrote of the life around him and made his readers aware of the problems of the urban middle-class and the country's villages and their problems. He supplemented Gandhiji's work in the political and social fields by adopting his revolutionary ideas as themes for his literary writings. Premchand was a prolific writer. He has left behind a dozen novels and nearly 250 short stories. Seva Sadan was his first novel. He believes in the principle: 'hate the sin and not the sinner.' His best known novels are Sevasadan, Rangamanch, Ghaban, Nirmala and Godan. Three of his novels have been made into films. Besides being a great novelist, Premchand was also a social reformer and thinker. His greatness lies in the fact that his writings embody social purpose and social criticism rather than mere entertainment. Literature according to him is a powerful means of educating public opinion. He believed in social evolution and his ideal was equal opportunities for all. Premchand died in 1936 and has since been studied both in India and abroad as one of the greatest writers of the century.

MUNSHI PREMCHAND : THE GREAT NOVELIST

31st July is Munshi Premchand's Birth Anniversary

A pioneer of modern Hindi and Urdu social fiction, Munshi Premchand's real name was Dhanpat Rai. He wrote nearly 300 stories and novels. Among his best known novels are: Sevasadan, Rangmanch, Gaban, Nirmala and Godan. Much of Premchand's best work is to be found among his 250 or so short stories, collected in Hindi under the title Manasarovar.Three of his novels have been made into films.Premchand's literary career started as a freelancer in Urdu. He was born at Lamahi near Banaras (now Varanasi) on 31st July,1880. His father Munshi Ajaib Lal was a clerk in the postal department. Premchand's early education was in a madarsa under a maulvi, where he learnt Urdu. Premchand was only eight years old when his mother died. His grandmother took the responsibility of raising him but she too died soon. He was married when he was 15 and in the 9th grade . His father also died and after passing the intermediate he had to stop his study. He got a job as a teacher in the primary school. In 1919, he passed his B.A., with English, Persian and History. After a series of promotions he became Deputy Inspectors of Schools. In response to Mahatma Gandhi's call of non-cooperation with the British he quit his job. After that he devoted his full attention to writing. His first story appeared in the magazine Zamana published from Kanpur.In his early short stories he depicted the patriotic upsurge that was sweeping the land in the first decade of the past century. Soz-e-Watan, a collection of patriotic stories published by Premchand in 1907, attracted the attention of the British Government In 1914, when Premchand switched over to Hindi, he had already established his reputation as a fiction writer in Urdu. While writing Urdu novels and short stories he emphasised in presenting the realities of life and he made the Indian villages his theme of writing. His novels describe the problems of the urban middle-class and the country's villages and their problems. He also emphasised on the Hindu-Muslim unity. His famous works include Godan, Maidan-e-Amal, Bay-wah, Chaugaan etc.It would not be wrong to say that Premchand was the Father of Urdu short- stories. Short stories or afsanas were startedby Premchand. As with his novels, his afsanas also mirror the society that he lived in. With a simple and flowing writing some of his works depict excellent use of satire and humour. His later works used very simple words and he started including Hindi words too to honestly potray his characters. His famous afsanas are Qaatil Ki Maan, Zewar Ka Dibba, Gilli Danda, Eidgaah, Namak Ka Daroga and Kafan. His collected stories have been published as Prem Pachisi, Prem Battisi, Wardaat and Zaad-e-Raah. Premchand was the first Hindi author to introduce realism in his writings. He pioneered the new form - fiction with a social purpose.He supplemented Gandhiji's work in the political and social fields by adopting his revolutionary ideas as themes for his literary writings. Besides being a great novelist,Premchand was also a social reformer and thinker.His greatness lies in the fact that his writings embody social purpose and social criticism rather than mere entertainment. Literature according to him is a powerful means of educating public opinion.He believed in social evolution and his ideal was equal opportunities for all.Premchand died in 1936 and has since been studied both in India and abroad as one of the greatest writers of the century.

प्रेमचंद की हिन्दी कहानी

  • नमक का दारोगा
  • दो बैलों की कथा
  • पूस की रात
  • पंच- परमेश्वर
  • एक आंच की कसर
  • नैराश्य लीला
  • उद्धार
  • विजय
  • कौशल
  • नरक का मार्ग
  • धिक्कार
  • वफ़ा का खंजर
  • माता का ह्रदय
  • निर्वासन
  • लैला
  • मुबारक बीमारी
  • नैराश्य
  • परीक्षा
  • नेउर
  • वासना की कड़ियॉँ
  • अपनी करनी
  • स्त्री और पुरुष
  • शूद्र
  • पुत्र-प्रेम
  • गैरत की कटार
  • स्वर्ग की देवी
  • एकता का सम्बन्ध पुष्ट होता है
  • इज्जत का खून
  • घमण्ड का पुतला
  • तेंतर
  • देवी
  • होली की छुट्टी
  • आधार
  • दण्ड
  • शिष्ट-जीवन के दृश्य
  • नादान दोस्त
  • अमृत
  • विश्वास
  • बड़े बाबू
  • प्रतिशोध
  • राष्ट्र का सेवक
  • खुदी
  • सैलानी बंदर
  • नब़ी का नीति-निर्वाह
  • आख़िरी तोहफ़ा
  • मन का प्राबल्य
  • अलग्योझा
  • मंदिर और मस्जिद
  • क़ातिल
  • विदुषी वृजरानी
  • ईदगाह
  • प्रेम-सूत्र
  • वरदान
  • माधवी
  • मॉँ
  • तांगेवाले की बड़
  • वैराग्य
  • काशी में आगमन
  • बेटों वाली विधवा
  • शादी की वजह
  • डिप्टी श्यामाचरण
  • प्रेम का स्वप्न
  • बडे भाई साहब
  • मोटेराम जी शास्त्री
  • सखियाँ
  • विदाई
  • शांति
  • पर्वत-यात्रा
  • निष्ठुरता और प्रेम
  • मतवाली योगिनी
  • नशा
  • कवच
  • नये पड़ोसियों से मेल-जोल
  • सभ्यता का रहस्य
  • स्‍वामिनी
  • दूसरी शादी
  • ईर्ष्या
  • समस्या
  • ठाकुर का कुआं
  • सौत
  • सुशीला की मृत्यु
  • दो सखियां
  • बुढ़ी काकी
  • देवी
  • विरजन की विदा
  • सोहाग का शव
  • झांकी
  • पैपुजी
  • कमलाचरण के मित्र
  • आत्म-संगीत
  • गुल्ली-डंडा
  • क्रिकेट मैच
  • कायापलट
  • एक्ट्रेस
  • ज्योति
  • कोई दुख न हो तो बकरी खरीद ला
  • भ्रम
  • ईश्वरीय न्याय
  • दिल की रानी
  • दुनिया का सबसे अनमोल रतन
  • कर्तव्य और प्रेम का संघर्ष
  • ममता
  • धिक्‍कार
  • शेख मखगूर
  • स्नेह पर कर्त्तव्य की विजय
  • मंत्र
  • बोहनी
  • शोक का पुरस्कार
  • कमला के नाम विरजन के पत्र
  • प्रायश्चित
  • बंद दरवाजा
  • सांसारिक प्रेम और देशप्रेम
  • प्रतापचन्द्र और कमलाचरण
  • कप्तान साहब
  • तिरसूल
  • विक्रमादित्य का तेगा
  • दु:ख-दशा
  • इस्तीफा
  • स्वांग
  • आखिरी मंजिल
  • आल्हा
  • नसीहतों का दफ्तर
  • राजहठ
  • त्रियाचरित्र
  • मिलाप
  • मनावन
  • अंधेर
  • सिर्फ एक आवाज
  • नेकी
  • बॉँका जमींदार
  • अनाथ लड़की
  • कर्मों का फल
  • जेल
  • पत्नी से पति
  • शराब की दूकान
  • जुलूस
  • मैकू
  • समर-यात्रा
  • शांति
  • बैक का दिवाला
  • आत्माराम
  • बड़ें घर की बेटी
  • दुर्गा का मन्दिर
  • शंखनाद
  • नाग पूजा
  • कफ़न
Premchand (1880-1936)
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