Swami Vivekananda | Dr. Rajendra Prasad | Shri Lal Bahadur Shastri | Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose | Jay Prakash Narayan | Sir J.C.Bose | Dr. Shanti Swaroop Bhatnagar | Munshi Premchand | Mahadevi Verma | Dr. Hariwansh Rai Bacchan | PriyaRanjanDas | SubodhKant Sahai | Smt. Neera Shastri | Amitabh Bacchan | Shatrugn Sinha

Swami Vivekananda | Dr. Rajendra Prasad | Shri Lal Bahadur Shastri | Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose | Jay Prakash Narayan | Sir J.C.Bose | Dr. Shanti Swaroop Bhatnagar | Munshi Premchand | Mahadevi Verma | Dr. Hariwansh Rai Bacchan | PriyaRanjanDas | SubodhKant Sahai | Smt. Neera Shastri | Amitabh Bacchan | Shatrugn Sinha

Swami Vivekananda

A spiritual genius of commanding intellect and power, Vivekananda crammed immense labor and achievement into his short life, 1863-1902. Born in the Datta family of Calcutta, the youthful Vivekananda embraced the agnoic philosophies of the Western mind along with the worship of science.

At the same time, vehement in his desire to know the truth about God, he questioned people of holy reputation, asking them if they had seen God. He found such a person in Sri Ramakrishna, who became his master, allayed his doubts, gave him God vision, and transformed him into sage and prophet with authority to teach.

After Sri Ramakrishna’s death, Vivekananda renounced the world and criss-crossed India as a wandering monk. His mounting compassion for India’s people drove him to seek their material help from the West. Accepting an opportunity to represent Hinduism at Chicago’s Parliament of Religions in 1893, Vivekananda won instant celebrity in America and a ready forum for his spiritual teaching.

For three years he spread the Vedanta philosophy and religion in America and England and then returned to India to found the Ramakrishna Math and Mission. Exhorting his nation to spiritual greatness, he wakened India to a new national consciousness. He died July 4, 1902, after a second, much shorter sojourn in the West. His lectures and writings have been gathered into nine volumes.

Swami Vivekananda | Dr. Rajendra Prasad | Shri Lal Bahadur Shastri | Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose | Jay Prakash Narayan | Sir J.C.Bose | Dr. Shanti Swaroop Bhatnagar | Munshi Premchand | Mahadevi Verma | Dr. Hariwansh Rai Bacchan | PriyaRanjanDas | SubodhKant Sahai | Smt. Neera Shastri | Amitabh Bacchan | Shatrugn Sinha

Dr. Rajendra Prasad

Dr. Rajendra Prasad, son of Mahadev Sahai, was born in Zeradei village in Bihar on December 3, 1884. Being the youngest in a large joint family “Rajen” was greatly loved and was strongly attached to his mother and elder brother Mahendra. Zeradei’s population was cosmopolitan in nature and the people lived together in happiness and harmony. Rajendra Prasad’s earliest memories are playing “kabaddi” with his Hindu and Muslim friends. Rajen was married when he was barely 12 years old to Rajvanshi Devi.

Rajen was a brilliant student throughout school and college. He stood first in the entrance examination of the University of Calcutta and was awarded a Rs. 30 per month scholarship. It was first time that a student from Bihar had excelled. He joined the Calcutta Presidency College in 1902.

The partition of Bengal in 1905 fueled the swadeshi and boycott movements. The movements had a deep effect on students in Calcutta. One day, residents of his hostel created a bonfire of all the foreign clothings they had. When Rajen went through his belongings he could not find a single item of foreign clothing.

Gopal Krishna Gokhale had started the Servants of India Society in 1905 and asked Rajen to join. So strong was his sense of duty toward his family and education that he, after much deliberation, refused Gokhale, one of the greatest nationalists of the time. Rajen recalled, “I was miserable” and for the first time in his life he barely got through his B.L. examinations.

In 1915, Rajen passed the Masters in Law examination with honors, winning a gold medal. He then completed his Doctorate in Law to attain the title, Dr. Rajendra Prasad

Swami Vivekananda | Dr. Rajendra Prasad | Shri Lal Bahadur Shastri | Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose | Jay Prakash Narayan | Sir J.C.Bose | Dr. Shanti Swaroop Bhatnagar | Munshi Premchand | Mahadevi Verma | Dr. Hariwansh Rai Bacchan | PriyaRanjanDas | SubodhKant Sahai | Smt. Neera Shastri | Amitabh Bacchan | Shatrugn Sinha


Shri Lal Bahadur Shastri

Lal Bahadur Shastri (October 2, 1904 – January 11, 1966) was the second permanent Prime Minister of independent

India and a significantfigure in the struggle forindependence.

Early Life and Freedom Struggle

Shashtriji was born in Mughalsarai (also spelt as Moghalsarai), in United Province (now Uttar Pradesh). To take part in the non-cooperation movement of Mahatma Gandhi in 1921, he began studying at the nationalist, Kashi Vidyapeeth in Kashi, and upon completion, he was given the title Shastri, or Scholar, Doctor at Kashi Vidyapeeth in 1926. He spent almost nine years in jail in total, mostly after the start of the Satyagraha movement in 1940, he was imprisoned until 1946 [citation needed].

Political Career

Following India’s independence, he was Home Minister under Chief Minister Govind Ballabh Pant of Uttar Pradesh. In 1951, he was appointed General Secretary of the Lok Sabha before re-gaining a ministerial post as Railways Minister. He resigned as Minister following a rail disaster near Ariyalur, Tamil Nadu. He returned to the Cabinet following the General Elections, first as Minister for Transport, in 1961, he became Home Minister.

Rise to Premiership

Jawaharlal Nehru died in office on May 27, 1964 and left a vacuum. The major figures of the Congress Party were unable to find enough support which allowed the lesser regarded Shastri to come through as the compromise candidate, becoming Prime Minister on June 9. Shastri, though mild-mannered and soft-spoken, was a Nehruvian socialist and thus held appeal to those wishing to prevent the ascent of conservative right-winger Morarji Desai.

Shastri worked by his natural characteristics to obtain compromises between opposing viewpoints, but in his short tenure was ineffectual in dealing with the economic crisis and food shortage in the nation. However, he commanded a great deal of respect in the Indian populace, and he used it to advantage in pushing the Green Revolution in India; which directly led to India becoming a food-surplus nation, although he did not live to see it. His administration began on a rocky turf.

War with Pakistan

See Also: Indo-Pakistani War of 196

The chief problem was Pakistan. Laying claim to half of the Kutchch peninsula, Pakistan sent incursion forces in August 1965, who skirmished with Indian tanks. Under a scheme proposed by the British PM, Pakistan obtained 10% of their original claim of 50%. But Pakistan’s main aggressive intentions were upon Kashmir. Just in September 1965, major incursions of militants and Pakistani soldiers began, hoping not only to break-down the government but incite a sympathetic revolt. The revolt did not happen, and an angry India sent its forces across the Line of Control, and the war broke out on a general scale. Massive tank battles occurred in the Punjab, and while Pakistani forces made some gains, Indian forces captured the key post at Haji Pir, in Kashmir, and brought the Pakistani city of Lahore under artillery and mortar fire.

Tashkent

A ceasefire was declared, and the soft-spoken, mild-mannered Shastri, once butt of jokes was now a national hero. In January 1966 Shastri and Pakistani President Muhammad Ayub Khan attended a summit in Tashkent (former USSR, now in modern Uzbekistan), organised by Kosygin. Shastri signed a treaty with Pakistan on January 10, the Tashkent Declaration, but the next day he was dead of a heart attack. He is the only Indian Prime Minister to have died in office overseas, and indeed probably one of the few heads of government in history to do so. All his lifetime, he was known for his honesty and humility.

Memorial

He was the first person to be posthumously awarded the Bharat Ratna and a memorial “Vijay Ghat” was built for him in Delhi. The slogan Jai Jawan, Jai Kisan (Hindi for “Hail the soldier, Hail the farmer”) is attributed to Shastri.

Quotes

Jai Jawan, Jai Kisan: Hail the soldier, Hail the farmer (Hindi)

If one person gives up one meal in a day, some other person gets his only meal of the day.: made during the food crisis to encourage people to evenly distribute food.

Swami Vivekananda | Dr. Rajendra Prasad | Shri Lal Bahadur Shastri | Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose | Jay Prakash Narayan | Sir J.C.Bose | Dr. Shanti Swaroop Bhatnagar | Munshi Premchand | Mahadevi Verma | Dr. Hariwansh Rai Bacchan | PriyaRanjanDas | SubodhKant Sahai | Smt. Neera Shastri | Amitabh Bacchan | Shatrugn Sinha

Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose

Subhash Chandra Bose (January 23, 1897–August 18, 1945) also known as Netaji, was a prominent leader of the Indian independence movement against British colonial rule. Bose helped to organize and later led the Indian National Army, put together with Indian prisoners-of-war and plantation workers from Singapore and other parts of Southeast Asia.

“Give me blood and I shall Give you freedom” was one of the most popular statements made by him, whereby he urges the people of India to join him in his freedom movement.

Early life:

Subhash Chandra Bose was born to an affluent Bengali family in Cuttack, Orissa. His father, Janakinath Bose, was a public prosecutor who believed in orthodox nationalism and later became a member of the Bengal Legislative Council. With eight brothers and six sisters, Bose’s family was large, but disciplined. He loved to read and was fascinated with religion, discipline, and self-control. As a youth, he did social service and after reading Vivekananda’s writings, “selfless service” became the motto guiding his life.

Recognizing his son’s intellect, Bose’s father was determined that Bose should become a high-ranking civil servant. He attended the Protestant European School and the Ravenshaw Collegiate School in Cuttack and later graduated with honours from the Scottish Church College, Calcutta. He was placed second in his university examinations and participated as a member of the India Defence Corps, then a newly-formed military training unit at the University of Calcutta. Afterwards he travelled to England and attended Fitzwilliam Hall at the University of Cambridge.

In 1920, Bose took the Indian Civil Service entrance examination and was ranked second. However, he resigned from the prestigious Indian Civil Service in April 1921 despite his high ranking in the merit list, and went ahead to join the freedom movement. After returning to India, he joined the Congress party and was particularly active in its youth wing. Bose’s ideas did not match with that of Gandhi’s belief in non-violence. So he returned to Kolkata to work under Chittaranjan Das, the Bengali freedom fighter and co-founder (with Motilal Nehru) of the Swarajya (Self Rule) Party. In 1921, Bose organised a boycott of the celebrations to mark the Prince of Wales’ visit to India. This led to his being imprisoned. In April 1924, Bose was elected the Chief Executive Officer of the newly constituted Calcutta Corporation. Later, in October that year, Bose was arrested as a suspected terrorist. First, he was in Alipore jail and later he was exiled to Mandalay in Burma.

In June 1925, Bose was deeply struck by the sudden loss of his mentor Chittaranjan Das. At the end of 1926 he was nominated in absentia, as a candidate for the Bengal Legislative Assembly. On May 16 1927 he was released from jail due to ill-health. The two years in Mandalay increased his confidence and strength. By December 1927, Bose with Jawaharlal Nehru became the the General Secretary of the Congress. On January 23 1930, Bose was once again arrested for leading an “Independence” procession. After being released from jail on September 25, he was elected as the Mayor of the City of Calcutta. He was incarcerated eleven times by the British over a span of twenty years, either in India or in Rangoon. He spent many years in various capacities as the Chief Executive Officer of the Calcutta Municipal Corporation (where Chittaranjan Das had previously been Mayor), and later as Mayor himself. With Jawaharlal Nehru he was one of the radical Left wing leaders of the Congress Party. He was exiled from India, during the mid 1930s to Europe, where he stated India’s cause for self-rule before gatherings and conferences (like the Second Communist International). After his father’s death the British authorities allowed him to land at Calcutta’s airport only for the religious rites, which would be followed by his swift departure. During this time he traveled extensively in India and in Europe before stating his political opposition to Gandhi. He became the president of the Haripura Indian National Congress in 1938, against Gandhi’s wishes. He was elected for a second term in 1939 in Tripura Congress Session; Gandhi had supported Pattabhi Sitaramayya and commented “Pattavi’s defeat is my defeat” after learning the election results. Although Bose won the election, Gandhi’s continued opposition led to the resignation of the Working Committee. In the face of this gesture of no-confidence Bose himself resigned. Bose then formed an independent party, the All India Forward Bloc.

Actions during the Second World War :

Bose advocated the approach that the political instability at war-time Britain should be taken advantage of—rather than simply wait for the British to grant political “Home Rule” after the end of the war (which was the view of Gandhi, Nehru and a section of the Congress leadership) at the time. In this he was influenced by the examples of Italian statesmen Giuseppe Garibaldi and Giuseppe Mazzini. During his stay in Europe from 1933 to 1936, he met several European leaders and thinkers, including Benito Mussolini, Eduard Benes, Karl Seitz, Eamon De Valera, Romain Rolland, and Alfred Rosenberg. He came to believe that India could achieve political freedom only if it had political, military and diplomatic support from outside and that an independent nation necessitated the creation of a national army. His correspondence reveals that despite his sheer dislike for British subjugation, he was deeply impressed by their methodical and systematic approach and their steadfastedly disciplinarian outlook towards life. In England, he exchanged ideas with British Labour Party leaders and political thinkers on the future of India. He came to accept the view that a free India needed Socialist authoritarianism, on the lines of Turkey’s Kemal Ataturk for at least two decades.

In Germany :

At the start of World War II, Bose escaped his incarceration at Home by taking the guise of a Pathan insurance agent (“Ziaudddin”) to Afghanistan and from there to Moscow with the passport of an Italian nobleman “Count Orlando Mazzotta”. From Moscow he reached Rome and from there he traveled to Germany where he instituted the Special Bureau for India under Adam von Trott zu Solz, broadcasting on the German-sponsored Azad Hind Radio. He founded the Free India Centre in Berlin and created the Indian Legion (consisting of some 4500 soldiers) out of Indian prisoners of war who had previously fought for the British in North Africa, but had capitulated to Erwin Rommel’s Afrika Korps. The Azad Hind Legion was attached to the Waffen SS, and they swore their allegiance to Hitler and Bose for the independence of India.

Bose was deeply dissapointed with Hitler when the Germans invaded the Soviet Union and decided to leave Nazi Germany. Besides, Hitler had shown little interest for the cause of Indian independence. He travelled by submarine around the Cape of Good Hope to Imperial Japan, which helped him to raise his army in Singapore. This was the only civilian-transfer across two different submarines of two different navies in World War II.

In Japan :

The Indian National Army (INA) consisted of some 85,000 regular troops, a separate women’s army unit named after Rani Lakshmi Bai (in a regular army, the women’s army unit was the First of its kind in Asia), who gave her life in the First War of Independence in 1857. These were under the aegis of a provisional government, with its own currency, court and civil code, named the “Provisional Government of Free India” (or the Arzi Hukumate Azad Hind) and recognised by nine Axis states: Germany, Japan, Italy, Croatia, Nationalist China, Siam, Burma, Manchukuo and the Philippines. This government had participated as a delegate or observer in the so-called Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere.

En route to India, some of Bose’s troops assisted in the Japanese victory over the British in the battles of Arakan and Meiktila, along with the Burmese National Army led by Ba Maw and Aung San. The Provisional Government and the INA were established in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands in the Bay of Bengal, part of the British Indian Empire. On Indian mainland, the Indian Tricolor was raised for the First time in the town in Moirang, in Manipur, in northeastern India. The other towns of Kohima and Imphal, were placed under siege by divisions of the Japanese, the Burmese and the Gandhi and Nehru Brigades of I.N.A.. At the time of the Great Bengal Famine of 1943, during which millions died of starvation, Bose had offered (through radio) Burmese rice to the victims of the famine. The British authorities in India (and in the UK) refused the offer.

When the Japanese were defeated at the battles of Kohima and Imphal, the Provisional Government’s aim of establishing a base in mainland India was lost forever and the INA was forced to pull-back along with the defeated Japanese Imperial Army. Japan’s surrender after the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki also led to the eventual surrender of the Indian National Army.

Political views :

Even though Bose and Gandhi had differing ideologies, the latter called Bose the “Patriot of Patriots” (Bose had called Gandhi “Father of the Nation”). He has been given belated recognition in India, and especially in West Bengal; Calcutta’s civil airport and a university have been named after him. Many of the symbols of the Bose’s provisional government, which were also associated with the Congress, have been adopted in independent India: Rabindranath Tagore’s “Jana Gana Mana”, which was the national song of the Provisional Government of Azad Hind is independent India’s National Anthem, and the tricolour as India’s national flag.

His alliance with the Axis continues to be controversial; many in India consider him a hero for his forceful stance against oppressive British imperialism. In Working with the Japanese he was however fighting his own countrymen, who defended India within the unpoliticised volunteer British Indian Army against the Japanese invasion.

At the time of the start of the Second World War, Great divisions existed in the Indian independence movement about whether to exploit the weakness of the British to achieve independence. Some felt that any distinctions between the political allegiances and ideologies of the warring factions of Europe were inconsequential in the face of the possibility of Indian independence, and that it was hypocritical of the British to condemn pro-democracy Indians for allying themselves with anti-democratic Axis forces when the British themselves showed so little respect for democracy or democratic reforms in India. Others felt that it was inappropriate to seek concessions when Britain itself was in peril, and found their distaste for Nazi Germany outweighed their concerns about Independence.

Bose, in particular, was accused of collaborating with the Axis; he counter-attacked the allegation criticising the British campaign during World War-II, saying that while Britain was fighting for the freedom of the European nations under Nazi control, it did not grant its own colonies, including India their rightful independence. It may be observed that along with Nehru, Bose had organized and led protest marches against the Japanese invasion of Manchuria in 1931, and of China itself in 1938, when he was Congress president. During that period, Chinese leader Chiang Kai Shek was feted in India and medical aid and food supplies were sent to Chinese areas which suffered the worst brunt of Japanese imperialism. That he eventually abandoned his political stance (which initially was that of Gandhi and Nehru) reflects his deep discontent with the nature of the British rule, and a growing belief that the formation of an Indian free state was nowhere on the British political roadmap. At the Tripura Congress session, he made his views quite explicit: Britain had forced a war on India, without bothering to consult Indians.

It is interesting to note that Bose’s earlier correspondences (prior to 1939) reflect his deep disapproval of the racist practices of and annulment of democratic institutions in Nazi Germany.

Though Bose did ally himself with the Axis powers, there is little to suggest he shared any of their doctrines of racial superiority; instead it appears he was motivated to join them largely out of political pragmatism.

Re-evaluation of Netaji :

The INA is fondly remembered by some Japanese and Indian historians who see Japanese efforts to support Bose as supporting the view that it was fighting a war on behalf of the oppressed peoples of Asia, in addition, the INA is seen by some as an organisation devoid of the divisive energies of parochialism that have since plagued India.

Gandhi called Bose the “Patriot of Patriots” (Bose had called Gandhi “Father of the Nation”). Bose’s portrait is also hung in the Indian Parliament and a statue has been erected in front of the West Bengal Legislative Assembly.

Bose was posthumously awarded the Bharat Ratna, India’s highest civilian award in 1992, but it was later withdrawn in response to a Supreme Court of India directive following a Public Interest Litigation filed in the Court against the “posthumous” nature of the award. The Award Committee could not Give conclusive evidence of Bose’s death and thus it invalidated the “posthumous” award.

Death :

Bose is supposed to have died in a plane crash over Taiwan while flying to Tokyo. However, his body was never recovered, and conspiracy theories concerning his possible survival abound. One such claims that Bose actually died in Siberia, while in Soviet captivity.

Mr. Harin Shah, an Indian journalist, visited Taipei and was shown a plane crash site (supposedly of Bose’s plane). Photos can be found at http://www.hindustantimes.com/news/specials/Netaji/photogallerycrash.htm

However, the Taiwan Government told an Indian journalist investigating into Bose’s death that Bose could not have died in a plane crash in the country, stating that there “were no plane crashes at Taipei between 14 August and 20 September 1945.” http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/4236189.stm

Swami Vivekananda | Dr. Rajendra Prasad | Shri Lal Bahadur Shastri | Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose | Jay Prakash Narayan | Sir J.C.Bose | Dr. Shanti Swaroop Bhatnagar | Munshi Premchand | Mahadevi Verma | Dr. Hariwansh Rai Bacchan | PriyaRanjanDas | SubodhKant Sahai | Smt. Neera Shastri | Amitabh Bacchan | Shatrugn Sinha

 

Jay Prakash Narayan

Jayaprakash Narayan (Devanāgarī: जयप्रकाश नारायण; October 11, 1902 – October 8, 1979), widely known as JP, was an Indian freedom fighter and political leader, remembered especially for leading the opposition to Indira Gandhi in the 1970s

Early life

He was born in Sitabdiara village in Saran district of Bihar, and studied for his BA and MA degrees in politics and sociology in the United States. In 1922, he went to the United States, where he studied political science , sociology and economics at the universities of Berkeley, Iowa, Wisconsin and Ohio State [1][2]. He adopted Marxism while studying at the University of Wisconsin in Madison, Wisconsin under Edward A. Ross; he was also deeply influenced by the writings of M. N. Roy. Financial constraints and his mother’s health forced him to abandon his wish of earning a PhD. He met other revolutionaries like Rajni Palme Dutt in London on his way back to India.

After returning to India, JP joined the Indian National Congress on the invitation of Jawaharlal Nehru in 1929; M. K. Gandhi would be his mentor in the Congress. During the Indian independence movement, he was arrested, jailed, and tortured several times by the British. He won particular fame during the Quit India movement.

JP married Prabhavati Devi, a freedom fighter in her own right and a staunch disciple of Kasturba Gandhi in October 1920; she stayed in Sabarmati ashram while JP was abroad and became a devoted Gandhian; she often held opinions which were not in agreement with JP’s views, but JP respected her independence. She was the older daughter of Brajkishore Prasad, one of the first Gandhians in Bihar and one who played a major role in Gandhi’s campaign in Champaran.

After being jailed in 1932 for civil disobedience against British rule, he was imprisoned in Nasik Jail, where he met Ram Manohar Lohia, Minoo Masani, Achyut Patwardhan, Ashok Mehta, Yusuf Desai and other national leaders. After his release, the Congress Socialist Party, a left-wing group within the Congress, was formed with Acharya Narendra Deva as President and JP as General secretary.

During the Quit India movement of 1942, when senior Congress leaders were arrested in the early stages, JP, Lohia and Basawon Singh (Sinha) were at the forefront of the agitations. Leaders such as Jayaprakash Narayan and Aruna Asaf Ali were described as “the political children of Gandhi but recent students of Karl Marx.”

After independence and the death of Mahatma Gandhi; JP, Acharya Narendra Dev and Basawon Singh (Sinha) led the CSP out of Congress to become the opposition Socialist Party, which later took the name Praja Socialist Party.Basawon Singh (Sinha) became the first leader of opposition in the state and assembly of Bihar and Acharya Narendra Deva became the first leader of opposition in the state and assembly of U.P.

Initially a defender of physical force, JP was won over to Gandhi’s position on nonviolence and advocated the use of satyagrahas to achieve the ideals of democratic socialism. Furthermore, he became deeply disillusioned with the practical experience of socialism in Nehru’s India.

Sarvodaya

On 19 April 1954, JP announced in Gaya that he was dedicating his life (Jeevandan) to Vinoba Bhave’s Sarvodaya movement and its Bhoodan campaign, which promoted distributing land to Harijans (untouchables). He gave up his land, set up an ashram in Hazaribagh, and worked towards uplifting the village.

In 1957, JP formally broke with the Praja Socialist Party in order to pursue lokniti [Polity of the people], as opposed to rajniti [Polity of the state]. By this time, JP had become convinced that lokniti should be non-partisan in order to build a consensus-based, classless, participatory democracy which he termed Sarvodaya. JP became an important figure in the India-wide network of Gandhian Sarvodaya workers.

In 1964, JP was vilified across the political spectrum for arguing in an article in the Hindustan Times that India had a responsibility to keep its promise to allow self-determination to the state of Jammu and Kashmir. He hit back at critics in a second article, dismissing the Indian version of the “domino theory” which held that the rest of India’s states would disintegrate if Kashmir were allowed its promised freedom. In his graceful if old-fashioned style, JP ridiculed the premise that “the states of India are held together by force and not by the sentiment of a common nationality. It is an assumption that makes a mockery of the Indian Nation and a tyrant of the Indian State”.

JP returned to the prominence in State politics in the late 1960s. In 1974, he devoted himself to the peasants’ struggle known as the Bihar movement, which demanded the resignation of the provincial government. He founded, together with V. M. Tarkunde, the Citizens for democracy in 1974 and the People’s union for civil liberties in 1976, NGOs to uphold and defend civil liberties.

Emergency

When Indira Gandhi was found guilty of violating electoral laws by the Allahabad High Court, JP called for Indira to resign, and advocated a program of social transformation which he termed Sampoorna kraanthi [Total Revolution]. Instead she proclaimed a national Emergency on the midnight of 25 June 1975, immediately after JP had called for the PM’s resignation and had asked the military and the police to disregard unconstitutional and immoral orders; JP, opposition leaders, and dissenting members (the ‘Young turks’) of her own party were arrested on that day.

JP was kept as detenu at Chandigarh even after he had asked for a month’s parole for mobilising relief in areas of Bihar gravely affected by flood. His health suddenly deteriorated on 24 October, and he was released on 12 November; diagnosis at Jaslok Hospital, Bombay, revealed kidney failure; he would be on dialysis for the rest of his life.

After Indira revoked the emergency on 18 January 1977 and announced elections, it was under JP’s guidance that the socialist-leaning Janata Party was formed. Janata Party was voted into power, and became the first non-Congress party to form a government at the Centre.

JP also wrote several books, notably Reconstruction of Indian Polity. He promoted Hindu revivalism, but was deeply critical of the form of revivalism promoted by the Sangh Parivar.

Not long before his death, it was in fact erroneously announced by the Indian prime minister, causing a brief wave of national mourning, including the suspension of parliament and regular radio broadcasting, and closure of schools and shops.

In 1998, he was posthumously awarded the Bharat Ratna award in recognition of his social work. Other awards include the Magsaysay award for Public Service in 1965.

JP is sometimes referred to with the honorific title Lok nayak or ‘guide of the people’.

A university (J P University in Chhapra, Bihar) and two Hospitals (L J N P Hospital in New Delhi and Jai Prabha Hospital in Patna) have been opened in his memor

Swami Vivekananda | Dr. Rajendra Prasad | Shri Lal Bahadur Shastri | Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose | Jay Prakash Narayan | Sir J.C.Bose | Dr. Shanti Swaroop Bhatnagar | Munshi Premchand | Mahadevi Verma | Dr. Hariwansh Rai Bacchan | PriyaRanjanDas | SubodhKant Sahai | Smt. Neera Shastri | Amitabh Bacchan | Shatrugn Sinha

Sir J.C.Bose

Jagadish Chandra Bose [10,11,12] was born in India in 1858. He received hiseducation first in India, until in 1880 he went to England to study medicine at the University of London. Within a year he moved to Cambridge to take up a scholarship to study Natural Science at Christ’s CollegeCambridge. One of his lecturers at Cambridge was Professor Rayleigh, who clearly had a profound influence on his later work. In 1884 Bose was awarded a B.A. from Cambridge, but also a B.Sc. from London University. Bose then returned to India, taking up a post initially as officiating professor of physics at the Presidency College in Calcutta. Following the example of Lord Rayleigh,Jagadis Bose made extensive use of scientific demonstrations in class; he is reported as being extraordinarily popular and effective as a teacher. Many of his students at the Presidency College were destined to become famous in their own right – for example S.N. Bose, later to become well known for the Bose-Einstein statistics.

A book by Sir Oliver Lodge, “Heinrich Hertz and His Successors,” impressed Bose. In 1894, J.C. Bose converted a small enclosure adjoining a bathroom in the Presidency College into a laboratory. He carried out experiments involving refraction, diffraction and polarization. To receive the radiation, he used a variety of different junctions connected to a highly sensitive galvanometer. He plotted in detail the voltage-current characteristics of his junctions, noting their non-linear characteristics. He developed the use of galena crystals for making receivers, both for short wavelength radio waves and for white and ultraviolet light. Patent rights for their use in detecting electromagnetic radiation were granted to him in 1904. In 1954 Pearson and Brattain [14] gave priority to Bose for the use of a semi-conducting crystal as a detector of radio waves. Sir Neville Mott, Nobel Laureate in 1977 for his own contributions to solid-state electronics, remarked [12] that “J.C. Bose was at least 60 years ahead of his time” and “In fact, he had anticipated he existence of P-type and N-type semiconductors.”

In 1895 Bose gave his first public demonstration of electromagnetic waves, using them to ring a bell remotely and to explode some gunpowder. In 1896 the Daily Chronicle of England reported: “The inventor (J.C. Bose) has transmitted signals to a distance of nearly a mile and herein lies the first and obvious and exceedingly valuable application of this new theoretical marvel.” Popov in Russia was doing similar experiments, but had written in December 895 that he was still entertaining the hope of remote signalling with radio waves. The first successful wireless signalling experiment by Marconi on Salisbury Plain in England was not until May 1897. The 1895 public demonstration by Bose in Calcutta predates all these experiments. Invited by Lord Rayleigh, in 1897 Bose reported on his microwave (millimeter-wave) experiments to the Royal Institution and other societies in England [8]. The wavelengths he used ranged from 2.5 cm to 5 mm. In his presentation to the Royal Institution in January 1897 Bose speculated [see p.88 of ref.8] on the existence of electromagnetic radiation from the sun, suggesting that either the solar or the terrestrial atmosphere might be responsible for the lack of success so far in detecting such radiation – solar emission was not detected until 1942,and the 1.2 cm atmospheric water vapor absorption line was discovered during experimental radar work in 1944. Figure 1 shows J.C. Bose at the Royal Institution in London in January 1897; Figure 2 shows a matching diagram, with a brief description of the apparatus.

Figure 1. J.C. Bose at the Royal Institution, London, 1897. [13]

By about the end of the 19th century, the interests of Bose turned away from electromagnetic waves to response phenomena in plants; this included studies of the effects of electromagnetic radiation on plants, a topical field today. He retired from the Presidency College in 1915, but was appointed Professor Emeritus. Two years later the Bose Institute was founded. Bose was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1920. He died in 1937, a week before his 80th birthday; his ashes are in a shrine at the Bose Institute in Calcutta.

Figure 2. Bose’s apparatus demonstrated to the Royal Institution in London in 1897 [8]. Note the waveguide radiator on the transmitter at left, and that the “collecting funnel” (F) is in fact a pyramidal electromagnetic horn antenna, first used by Bose.

BOSE’S APPARATUS

Bose’s experiments were carried out at the Presidency College in Calcutta, although for demonstrations he developed a compact portable version of the equipment, including transmitter, receiver and various microwave components. Some of his original equipment still exists, now at the BoseInstitute in Calcutta. In 1985 the author was permitted by the Bose Institute to examine and photograph some of this original apparatus.

3(a

3(b)

Figure 3 Bose’s diagrams of his radiators. (a) shows the radiator used to generated 5-mm radiation, while (b) shows the arrangement with a lens L at the exit of the waveguide [2]. In some designs the mounting tems for the outer spheres could be inclined to adjust the dimension of the spark gaps.

Figure 3 (a) shows Bose’s diagram of one of his radiators, used for generating 5-mm radiation. Oscillation is produced by sparking between 2 hollow hemispheres and the interposed sphere. There is a bead of platinum on the inside surface of each hemisphere. For some experiments, a lens of glass or of sulphur was used to collimate the radiation – the first waveguide-lens antenna. The lens was designed according to the refractive index measured by Bose at the wavelength in use. Figure 3(b) shows Bose’s drawing of such a radiator; the sparks occur between the two outer spheres to the inner sphere, at the focal point of the lens L at the right. Bose was able to measure the wavelength of his radiation with a reflecting diffraction grating made of metal strips [7].

Bose measured the I-V characteristics of his junctions; an example characteristic curve of a “Single Point Iron Receiver” is shown in Figure 6. The junction consisted of a sharp point of iron, pressing against an iron surface, with pressure capable of fine adjustment. The different curves in Figure 6 correspond to different contact pressures. Bose noted that the unction does not obey Ohm’s law, and that there is a knee in the curve at approximately 0.45 volts; the junction becomes most effective at detection of short wavelength radiation when the corresponding bias voltage is applied. He made further measurements on a variety of junctions made of different materials, classifying the different materials into positive or negative classes of substance. In one experiment he noted that increasing the applied voltage to the junction actually decreased the resulting current, implying a negative dynamic resistance [15].

Another of Bose’s short-wavelength detectors is the spiral-spring receiver. A sketch of a receiver used for 5-mm radiation is shown in Figure 7; the spring pressure could be adjusted very finely in order to attain optimum sensitivity. The sensitive surface of the 5-mm receiver was 1 by 2 cm. The device has been described recently [3] as a “space-irradiated multi-contact semiconductor (using the natural oxide of the springs).” A surviving, somewhat larger, spiral spring receiver is shown in the photograph

Figure 8. The springs are held in place by a sheet of glass, seen to be partly broken in this example.

Figure 9 is Bose’s diagram of his polarization apparatus. The transmitter is the box at left, and a spiral spring receiver (‘R’) is visible on the right. One of the polarizers used by Bose was a cut-off metal plate grating, consisting of a book (Bradshaw’s Railway Timetable, Figure 10) with sheets of tinfoil interleaved in the pages. Bose was able to demonstrate that even an ordinary book, without the tinfoil, is able to produce polarization of the transmitted beam. The pages act as parallel dielectric sheets separated by a small air gap.

Bose’s diagram of his polarization apparatus. Note the spiral spring

receiver ‘R’ to the right.

Bose experimented with samples of jute in polarizing experiments. In one experiment, he made a twisted bundle of jute and showed that it could be used to rotate the plane of polarization. The modern equivalent component may be a twisted dielectric waveguide. He further used this to construct a macroscopic molecular model as an analogy to the rotation of polarization produced by liquids like sugar solutions.

THE DOUBLE-PRISM ATTENUATOR

Bose’s investigations included measurement of refractive index of a ariety of substances. He made dielectric lenses and prisms;

Bose’s 1897 diagram of the double-prism attenuator.

One investigation involved measurement of total internal reflection inside a dielectric prism, and the effect of a small air gap between two identical prisms. When the prisms are widely separated, total internal reflection takes place and the incident radiation is reflected inside the dielectric. When the 2 prisms touch, radiation propagates unhindered through both prisms. By introducing a small air gap, the combination becomes a variable attenuator to incident radiation; this is illustrated in Bose’s original diagram, shown in Figure 13. Bose investigated this prism attenuator experimentally; his results were published in the Proceedings of the Royal Society in November, 1897 . Schaefer and Gross made a theoretical study of the prism combination in 1910; the device has since been described in standard texts.

At the National Radio Astronomy Observatory in Tucson, Arizona a new multiple-feed receiver, operating at a wavelength of 1.3 mm, has recently been built and installed on the 12 Meter Telescope at Kitt Peak . The system is an 8-feed receiver, where the local oscillator is injected into the superconducting tunnel junction (SIS) mixers optically. With an SIS mixer receiver the power level of the injected local oscillator is critical; each of the 8 mixers requires independent local oscillator power adjustment. This is achieved by adjustable prism attenuators. Figure 15 shows 4 of these 8 prism attenuators, installed on one side of the 8-feed system; this can be compared with Figure 14, which is a photograph taken at the Bose Institute in Calcutta in 1985, of an original prism system built by Bose.

CONCLUSIONS

Research into the generation and detection of millimeter waves, and the properties of substances at these wavelengths, was being undertaken in some detail one hundred years ago, by J.C. Bose in Calcutta. Many of the microwave components familiar today – waveguide, horn antennas, polarizers, dielectric lenses and prisms, and even semiconductor detectors of electromagnetic radiation – were invented and used in the last decade of the nineteenth century. At about the end of the nineteenth century, many of the workers in this area simply became interested in other topics. Attention of the wireless experimenters of the time became focused on much longer wavelengths which eventually, with the help of the then unknown ionosphere, were able to support signalling at very much greater distances.

Although it appears that Bose’s demonstration of remote wireless signalling has priority over Marconi, he was the first to use a semiconductor junction to detect radio waves, and he invented various now commonplace microwave components, outside of India he is rarely given the deserved recognition. Further work at millimeter wavelengths was almost nonexistent for nearly 50 years. J.C. Bose was at least this much ahead of his time.

Swami Vivekananda | Dr. Rajendra Prasad | Shri Lal Bahadur Shastri | Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose | Jay Prakash Narayan | Sir J.C.Bose | Dr. Shanti Swaroop Bhatnagar | Munshi Premchand | Mahadevi Verma | Dr. Hariwansh Rai Bacchan | PriyaRanjanDas | SubodhKant Sahai | Smt. Neera Shastri | Amitabh Bacchan | Shatrugn Sinha

Dr. Shanti Swaroop Bhatnagar

I have always been associated with many prominent figures eminent in other ways,

but Dr. Bhatnagar was a special combination of many things, added to which was a tremendous energy with an enthusiasm to achieve things. The result was he left a

record of achievement which was truly remarkable. I can truly say that but for Dr. Bhatnagar you could not have seen today the chain of national laboratories.

Pandit Jawaharlal 1

Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar played a significant part alongwith Homi Jehangir Bhabha, Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis, Vikram Ambalal Sarabhai and others in building of post-independent S&T infrastructure and in the formulation of India’s science and technology policies. Bhatnagar was the Founder Director of the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR),which was to later became a major agency for research in independent India. He was the first Chairman of the University Grants Commission (UGC)

He was Secretary, Ministry of Education and Educational Adviser to Government. Bhatnagar played an important role both in the constitution and deliberations of the Scientific Manpower Committee Report of 1948. ‘It may be pointed out that this was the first-ever systematic assessment of the scientific manpower needs of the country in all aspects which served as an important policy document for the government to plan the post-independent S&T infrastructure.’ Bhatnagar was a University Professor for 19 years (1921-40) first at the Banaras Hindu University and then at the Punjab University and he had a reputation as a very inspiring teacher and it was as a teacher that he himself was most happy. His research contribution in the areas of magneto chemistry and physical chemistry of emulsion were widely recognised. He also did considerable work in applied chemistry. He played an instrumental role in the establishment of the National Research Development Corporation (NRDC) of India, which bridges the gap between research and development. Bhatnagarwas responsible for the initiation of the Industrial Research Association movement in the country. He constituted the one-man Commission in 1951 to negotiate with oil companies for starting refineries and this ultimately led to the establishment of many oil refineries in different parts of the country. He induced many individuals and organisations to donate liberally for the cause of science and education. He exhibited high poetic talent particularly in Urdu .

Bhatnagar was born on 21 February 1894 at Bhera, in the district of Shapur in Punjab (now in Pakistan). Bhatnagar belonged to an educated elite family both from the paternaland maternal side. His paternal grandfather Rai Bahadur Munshi Manohar Lal Bhatnagar held high executive post and was particularly noted for his piety and honesty. His father Parmeshwari Sahai Bhatnagar, who was a distinguished graduate of the Panjab University, refused to take up judicial or executive service which was the tradition of the family and became headmaster of a high school in Bhera. His mother Parbati Bhatnagar was the eldest daughter of Pearey Lal, who was a distinguished engineer (he was one of the first to qualify as an engineer from the Roorkee College of Engineering). Under the influence of his maternal grandfather the young Bhatnagar not only developed a taste for engineering and science but also became interested at a very early age in his grandfather’s instruments, geometry and algebra and in making mechanical toys. Bhatnagar’s interest in poetry and literature also came from his mother’s side. It may be noted that his mother’s family produced a number of poets, the most famous of themwas Munshi Hargopal Tufta who got the title of Mirza from Mirza Ghalib the greatest Urdu poet. Bhatnagar’s maternal family which adorned the Moghul courts was bestowed with the title of Khwaja-i-Khawaja.

Bhatnagar’s father was disinherited and thus lost his share of family property because of his refusal to follow the family tradition. Unfazed by this Parmeshwari Sahai Bhatnagar continued to serve the society but when he died he left his wife and young children in dire poverty. Bhatnagarhad his earliest schooling in a private ‘Maktab” and then studied in A.V. High school in Sikandrabad in UP where his maternal grandfather worked. Rai Sahib Lala Raghunath Sahai, the famous headmaster of the Dyal Singh High School at Lahore and a friend of Bhatnagar’s father persuaded his mother to send Bhatnagar for schooling at Lahore. While studying in the Dyal Singh High School Bhatnagar came in contact with two leading Brahmos namely Pandit Shiv Nath Sastry and Babu Abinash Chandra Mazumdar. Bhatnagar, whose father had joined Brahmo Samaj, became highly interested in the activities of the Samaj. Raghunath Sahai, the head master, who later became Bhatnagar’s father-in-law played an important role in shaping the views news of Bhatnagar. Besides the headmaster the other teachers who had influenced Bhatnagar were Rai Bahadur Lala Ram Kishore (who later became the Vice-Chancellor of the Delhi University), Lala Bishen Narain Mathur, Moulvi Talib Ali Paband and Mohd. Ashraf .

Bhatnagar passed the Matriculation Examination in the first division and secured a University Scholarship. In 1911 Bhatnagar joined the newly established Dyal Singh College. Here he became an active member of the Saraswati Stage Society, established by Mrs. Norah Richards, the wife of the English literature professor of the College, P.E. Richards. Bhatnagar earned a good reputation as an actor. With Mrs. Richards’ encouragement Bhatnagar wrote in Urdu a one-act play called ‘Karamati ’(Wonder worker), the English translation of which earned him the prize and medal of the Saraswati Stage Society for the best play of the year 1912. Bhatnagar continued his interest in literary work in his later phases of life. After the death of his wife Bhatnagar wrote a collection of poems in Urdu in memory of his wife, which were published under the title Lajwanti.

Bhatnagar passed the Intermediate Examination of the Panjab University in 1913 in the first division and joined the Forman Christian College for the BSc degree. At the time of Bhatnagar’s joining the college. Dr. J.C.R Ewing was the Principal. Dr. Ewing (who later became Sir James Ewing) was for many years Vice-Chancellor of the Panjab University. Here he studied physics and chemistry and took up on Honours course in physics. He was taught physics by J.M. Benade,who had done research with Arthur Holly Compton (1892-1962), the Nobel Laureat in physics. Itmay be noted here that Bhatnagar did his first research work with Benade for his MSc degree on the subject of surface tension). Chemistry was taught by P. Carter Speers who used to be regarded as father of technical education in the University

Mr. Welinker, Principal of Dyal Singh College, who later became Director of Public Instruction wrote:‘Mr. Shanti Swarup was one of the ablest students in that large class of about 100 students; indeed, I am of opinion that in all-round ability he was the ablest. He distinguished himself in every branch of the work of his class—literary, scientific, dramatic, social and he gave the most complete satisfaction to the Professor by the excellence of his behavior. He is a young man of more than usual ability and I feel sure that if he is given opportunities of developing his talent in some great European or American Centre of Scientific research he will do some remarkable work in science and will thus be in a position to render high service to his country.’

After taking the Bachelor’s degree in 1916 he decided to take up his first formal employment as Demonstrator in the Physics and Chemistry Department of the Forman Christian College. Laterhe became the Senior Demonstrator in the Dyal Singh College. The employment, however, did not hinder Bhatnagar’s efforts in pursuing higher studies. He joined the MSc course in chemistry in the Forman Christian College and took the degree in 1919

With the initiative taken by Ruchi Ram Sahni Bhatnagar was awarded a scholarship by the Dyal Singh College Trust for his studies abroad. Armed with this scholarship Bhatnagar left for America via England. But after reaching England he found that it was impossible to find berth on ships sailing to America as all tickets had been booked for American troops which were then being demobilised. He informed the situation to the Trustees and the latter agreed to his doing post-graduate research in London. Bhatnagar presented himself with his research papers to Professor F. G. Donnan of the University College of London.Professor Donnan readily agreed to take Bhatnagar under his care for the DSc degree of the London University. In 1921 Bhatnagar received the degree. As a member of Donnan’s school he was engaged in the study of adhesion and cohesion in emulsions. His thesis was entitled ‘Solubilities of bi- and trivalent salts of higher fatty acids in oils and their effect on surface tension of oils.’ While working in London he also had a fellowship of the value of 250 pounds a year from the DSIR, England.

Bhatnagar returned to India in August 1921 and he joined the Banaras Hindu University (BHU) as Professor of Chemistry. It may be noted that the BHU was founded by Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya in 1916. Bhatnagar stayed for three years in BHU and during this short span of time he was able to create an active school of physico-chemical research. Bhatnagar wrote the ‘Kulgeet’ (University song) of the University. Justice N.H. Bhagwati, Vice-Chancellor of BHU said: “Many of you perhaps do not know that besides being an eminent scientist, Professor Bhatnagar was a Hindi poet of repute and that during his stay in Banaras, he composed the ‘Kulgeet’ of the University…Prof. Bhatnagar is remembered with reverence in this University and will continue to be so remembered till this University exists.”

From Banaras Bhatnagar moved to Lahore where he was appointed as University Professor of Physical Chemistry and Director of University Chemical Laboratories. He spent 16 years in the Panjab University, Lahore and this period was the most active period of his life for original scientific work. While his major fields of study were colloidal chemistry and magneto-chemistry he did considerable work in applied and industrial chemistry. In 1928 Bhatnagar, jointly with K.N. Mathur, invented an instrument called the Bhatnagar-Mathur Magnetic Interference Balance.The balance was one of the most sensitive instruments for measuring magnetic properties. It was exhibited at the Royal Society Soiree in 1931 and it was marketed by Messers Adam Hilger and Co, London.

Bhatnagar did considerable work in applied and industrial chemistry. The first industrial problem undertaken by Bhatnagar was the development of a process to convert bagasse (peelings of sugarcane) into food cake for cattle. This was done for the Grand Old Man of Punjab, Sir Ganga Ram. He had undertake industrial problems for Delhi Cloth Mills; J.K. Mills Ltd., Kanpur; Ganesh Flour Mills Ltd., Layallapur; Tata Oil Mills Ltd., Bombay; Steel Brothers & Co. Ltd., London and so on. One of the important achievements of Bhatnagar in applied and industrial chemistry was the work he did for Attock Oil Company at Rawalpindi (representative of Messers Steel Brothers & Co London). Attock Oil Company in their drilling operations confronted a peculiar problem, wherein the mud used for drilling operation when came in contact with the saline water got converted into a solid mass which hardened further. This solidification of the mud rendered all drilling operations impossible.

Bhatnagar realised that this was a problem in colloidal chemistry and developed a suitable method to solve it. ‘The problem was elegantly solved by the addition of an Indian gum which had the remarkable property of lowering the viscosity of the mud suspension and of increasing at the same time its stability against the flocculating action of electrolytes.” M/s Steel Brothers was so pleased with the method developed by Bhatnagar that they offered a sum of Rs. 1,50,000/- to Bhatnagar for his research work on any subject related to petroleum. At the instance of Bhatnagar the company placed the amount at the disposal of the University. The grant helped to establish the Department of Petroleum Research under the guidance of Bhatnagar. Investigations carried out under this collaborative scheme included deodourisation of waxes, increasing flame height of kerosene and utilisation of waste products in vegetable oil and mineral oil industries. Realising the commercial importance of the collaborative scheme the Company increased the amount and extended the period from five years to ten years.

Bhatnagar persistently refused to receive any monetary benefit arising out of his applied industrial chemical research for his personal ends on the ground that it may be utilised for strengthening research facilities at the University. His sacrifices drew wide attention. Meghnad Saha wrote to Bhatnagar in 1934 saying, ‘you have hereby raised the status of the university teachers in the estimation of public, not to speak of the benefit conferred on your Alma Mater’.

Bhatnagar jointly with K.N. Mathur wrote a book ‘Physical Principles and Applications of Magneto chemistry’ and which was published by Macmillan publishers. This book was recognised as a standard work on the subject. Prafulla Chandra Ray wrote: “On turning over the pages of Nature my eyes chanced upon an advertisement of Macmillan’s in which I find your book at last advertised. That the book is of a high standard is indicated by the most excellent review in Current Science by Professor Stoner, who is competent to judge. As far as I know Meghnad’s is the only text book in physical sciences which has been adopted by foreign universities; and it gladdens my heart that another work in physical science is likely to occupy a similar place. My days are practically numbered; and my great consolation is that you, in chemistry, are raising the reputation, abroad, of Indian workers”.

In 1930s there were no appropriate research organisations for the development of natural resources and new industries. Thus Sir Richard Gregory, then editor of Nature, who after visiting scientific departments and universities in India in 1933 drew the attention of Sir Samuel Hoare, Secretary of State for India, to the lack of appropriate research organisation equivalent to those of in DSIR in Britain for the development of natural research and new industries. He observed: “I knew that work of the Geological Survey of India, Botanical Survey of India, Meteorological Department, Forestry and so on; but I think something should be done to form an Indian Research Council to make use of the undoubted capacity of Indians for scientific investigations and its applications. Scientific activities, many of them having a direct bearing upon the development of resources of the country, are scarcely given the attention they deserve.” Gregory was not alone in realising the need for appropriate research organisation. C.V. Raman, Lt. Col. Seymour Sewell and Dr. J.C. Ghosh had earlier proposed the creation of an Advisory Board of Scientific Research for India. Indian scientists at Calcutta and Bangalore initiated schemes to launch a National Institute of Sciences and an India Academy Science respectively. At the Fifth Industries Conference in 1933 the Provincial Governments of Bombay, Madras, Bihar and Orissa unanimously reiterated their demand to set up a co-ordinating forum for industrial research, Sir Hoare advised the Viceroy, Lord Willingdon to support the idea of an Indian version of DSIR. However, in May 1934 Willingdon informed Hoare in London that `the creation of a Department of Scientific and Industrial Research in India to promote the application of research to natural resources does not appear to be necessary.” Having rejected an Indian version of the DSIR the colonial Government decided in 1934 to make a small concession. The Govt. agreed to create an Industrial Intelligence and Research Bureau and which came into operation in April 1935 under the Indian Stores Department. The Bureau had very limited resources (with a budget of Rs. 1.0 lakh per annum) and thus it was not possible for it to undertake any industrial activity. It was mainly concerned with testing and quality control.

When the Second World War began it was proposed to abolish the Bureau. Sir Ramaswamy Mudaliar, the Commerce Member, while accepting the recommendation that the Bureau be abolished argued that “the old Bureau should be abolished not as a measure of economy but to make room for a Board of Scientific and Industrial Research with vaster resources and wider objectives. Mudaliar’s persistent efforts led to the creation of the Board of Scientific and Industrial Research (BSIR) on April 1, 1940 for a period of two years. Bhatnagar, who by then had made remarkable contributions to chemistry was called on to take charge. Bhatnagar was designated Director, Scientific and Industrial Research and Sir Mudaliar became BSIR’s first Chairman. The BSIR was allocated an annual budget of Rs. 500,000 and placed under the Department of Commerce. By the end of 1940, about eighty researchers were engaged under BSIR, of whom one-quarter was directly employed. Within two years of its establishment the BSIR was able to work out a number of processes at the laboratory level for industrial utilisation. Those included techniques for the purification of Baluchistan sulphur anti-gas cloth manufacture, the development of vegetable oil blends as fuel and lubricants, the invention of a pyrethrum emulsifier and cream, the development of plastic packing cases for army boots and ammunition, dyes for uniforms and the preparation of vitamins. Bhatnagar persuaded the Government to set up an Industrial Research Util

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